30 julho 2015

TODAY IN THE HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGYVia:...



TODAY IN THE HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY

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Milky Way over Uluru


The central regions of our Milky Way Galaxy rise above Uluru/Ayers Rock in this striking night skyscape. Recorded on July 13, a faint airglow along the horizon shows off central Australia's most recognizable landform in silhouette. Of course the Milky Way's own cosmic dust clouds appear in silhouette too, dark rifts along the galaxy's faint congeries of stars. Above the central bulge, rivers of cosmic dust converge on a bright yellowish supergiant star Antares. Left of Antares, wandering Saturn shines in the night.

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Here’s What Breaking Up Does to Your Brain When the love...



Here’s What Breaking Up Does to Your Brain

When the love of your life dumps you, you’re going to go a little nuts. But it’s a very specific form of crazy: There are actually conflicting neural systems active inside your brain. It’s like you’re falling in love all over again, only in reverse. Here’s how neuroscience explains it.

Addicted to Love

It doesn’t matter whether you were with your ex-lover for six months, four years, or more – a breakup throws your brain back into the obsession of early love. Everything that reminds you of that person – a photograph, places you used to go together, random thoughts – triggers activity in “reward” neurons inside the caudate nucleus and the ventral tegmental area of the brain. These are the same parts of the brain that light up when scientists put people in the throes of that grossly cute can’t-think-about-anything-else stage of new love into an fMRI machine and ask them to look at photos of their beloved. As it happens, they’re also parts of the brain that respond to cocaine and nicotine.

Turning on the reward neurons releases repeated floods of the neurotransmitter dopamine. And the dopamine activates circuits inside the brain that create a craving for more. That craving gives you motivation, and encourages you to try out other behaviors that will help you get more of whatever it is you need. In the case of romance, the thing you need more of is your beloved.

As a romantic relationship develops into a long term partnership, that obsession fades away, even though thoughts of your partner still tickle the brain’s reward systems. But after a breakup, all those old can’t-get-enough feelings come flooding back. The brain’s reward systems are still expecting their romantic ‘fix’, but they’re not getting the responses they expect. And like someone in the depths of a drug addiction, they turn up the volume in an effort to get you to respond.

In this new context, the reward system is now the part of your brain that’s going to motivate you do something really dumb. Like drunk calling your ex, or initiating breakup sex.

Lucy Brown, a neuroscientist at Einstein College of Medicine who has studied romantic responses in the brain, explains that the motivation is more extreme than for other forms of social rejection because romance ties into more primal parts of the brain. “Other kinds of social rejection are much more cognitive,” she says. “[Romantic rejection] is a life changing thing, and involves systems that are at the same level as feeling hungry or thirsty.”

No wonder it hurts.

The Pain is Real

When your lover leaves you, chances are you’re going to feel it. Your chest gets tight, you feel sick to your stomach, or maybe there’s that sinking sensation that accompanies terrible news. Two studies that looked at brain activity inside people who were deep in the throes of a breakup found that the reward regions weren’t the only systems lit up inside their brains. They also saw activity in brain regions that control distress and the response to physical pain. Specifically, the parts of the brain that collect pain sensations from the outside world were quiet, but the systems they tie to–the systems that control how the body reacts to pain–were busy telling the body that something awful was happening.

And since the brain controls the body, turning on those systems can trigger a cascade of effects: for example, releasing stress hormones which in turn affect the heart, the digestive system, even the immune system. In some extreme cases, the stress can make the heart weaken and bulge, creating a condition called takotsubo cardiomyopathy or “broken heart syndrome,” which can sometimes lead to death.

Fortunately, those sorts of extreme stress responses are rare. But the pain of a romantic rejection can still last a long time. There’s a lot of variation from one person to the next, but Brown says the painful feelings usually fade away over the course of about six months to two years. But the pain is a natural part of the process. Breakups hurt because they turn on a basic system that gets us to make and maintain meaningful connections with other people. “It’s a system to try to keep us together”, Brown explains. “When we have little separations, these feelings get us to work hard to get close to the person again. If two people are cooperating, it works.” When they’re not, it’s as much of a hurt as a cut or a broken bone.

What Were They Thinking? And What Can You Do?

So far, all the “breakup fMRI” experiments have looked at brain activity in dump-ees. Like you, science still has no idea what’s going on in the brain of a dump-er. Logic suggests there must be some mechanism that can slowly erode and weaken connections in the brain’s attachment pathways. We do know that neural connections that aren’t used in sensory pathways can get pruned away, so perhaps this type of neural rewriting can also slowly change the way your lover feels about you until one day, those warm feelings of romantic attachment are gone.

And then comes that “We have to talk” visit.

But when you’re heartbroken, there’s no reason that you can’t try things that encourage your brain to rewire itself. In fact, there’s evidence that immediately after a breakup your brain is working hard to get you to move on. Those same brain scans of the heartbroken that showed their brains were awash in pain and desire also had activity in regions of the frontal cortex that inhibit impulses and redirect behavior.

In short, explains Brown, your brain is trying to regulate your mixed-up emotions, prevent you from doing at least some of the crazy things you feel compelled to try, and help you start putting your life back together. It will take time to get over it. But over time, the brain activity of romantic obsession will go away. Until then, Brown suggests trying a little memory rewriting of your own. “When the thought of that person comes up, instead of thinking how great [the relationship] was, think about how bad that person was for you instead.”

[Mearns 1991 | Aron et al. 2005 | Wittstein et al. 2005 | Smith and Vale 2006 | Acevedo et al. 2010 | Fisher et al. 2010 | Kross et al. 2011 | Cooper et al. 2014 | Eisenberger 2015]

Illustration by Jim Cooke

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Meteoro em chamas surge nos céus da Argentina

meteoro-argentina

Residentes de Buenos Aires, na Argentina, estão relatando nas redes sociais o aparecimento de um enorme meteoro que teria rasgado os céus da cidade. O fenômeno teria ocorrido às 21h30 (horário de Brasília), nesta quinta-feira (30/07).

Entre as imagens e vídeos registrados por testemunhas locais, o objeto pode ser visto em chamas enquanto fazia seu percurso até o solo. Por enquanto não há informações de incidentes ou vítimas com a queda da rocha.












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anatomyandphysiologytutor: The 11 Organ Systems of the Human...



anatomyandphysiologytutor:

The 11 Organ Systems of the Human Body*:

  • Muscular (A)
  • Skeletal (B)
  • Nervous ©
  • Endocrine (D)
  • Cardiovascular (E)
  • Integumentary (F)
  • Lymphatic (G)
  • Respiratory (H)
  • Digestive (I)
  • Urinary (J)
  • Reproductive (K)
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plannedparenthood: 7/30/15We’re so sorry for the inconvenience....



plannedparenthood:

7/30/15

We’re so sorry for the inconvenience. We’re still here for you and so is our chat/text line if you have time-sensitive questions.

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mercury & solar flare, photographed by soho, 23rd july...



mercury & solar flare, photographed by soho, 23rd july 2015.

27 frames, photographed over 6 hours.

image credit: nasa/soho. animation: ageofdestruction.

age
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Rock art from Ennedi Plateau, in Chad.









Rock art from Ennedi Plateau, in Chad.

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darkgemstone: thatsreallyproblematic: thewabbajackx: nowyoukno...



darkgemstone:

thatsreallyproblematic:

thewabbajackx:

nowyoukno:

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that gator had seen some shit

If I wrestle this gator I will have wrestled Adolf Hitler’s Alligator. I’M GOIN TO MOSCOW

Dakota, pack my bags and brass knuckles, I’m going to fight Hitler’s pet alligator in Moscow.

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Happy 50th Birthday, Medicaid & Medicare! by Mark...



Happy 50th Birthday, Medicaid & Medicare!

by Mark DeFrancesco, MD, ACOG President

It’s hard to believe that it’s been half of a century since President Lyndon B. Johnson signed Medicaid, along with Medicare, into law. Even though Medicare more commonly provides coverage for a smaller fraction of the patients in a typical ob-gyn practice, it still is an example of a national program that works very well, providing coverage for more than 50 million people. Over the past 50 years, Medicaid has grown to cover more than 71 million Americans — nearly one in ten women relies on Medicaid for health coverage which includes family planning, screening for breast and cervical cancer, and long-term services and support. In fact, Medicaid covered 45% of all U.S. births in 2010 and plays a critical role in ensuring access to pregnancy-related care. Without Medicaid, many women would struggle to access or be unable to afford the care we provide.

Already 29 states and the District of Columbia have recognized the value of Medicaid and expanded their programs under the Affordable Care Act. This provides low-income women with routine and preventive care, including preconception care and family planning, which in turn helps women have healthy pregnancies and live healthier lives.

Medicaid covers a robust variety of services for its enrollees. Federal law requires all state Medicaid programs to cover many comprehensive benefits to women including:

  • Family planning services
  • Inpatient hospital services
  • Outpatient hospital services
  • Physician services
  • Tobacco cessation counseling for pregnant women
  • Transportation to medical care
  • Prescription coverage is an optional service category that all states currently choose to cover

So, Happy Birthday, Medicare and Medicaid! Thanks for ensuring that our older population, our disabled and our low-income women have access to the health services they need. Here’s to another 50 years, and beyond, of quality coverage!

(From ACOG, The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists )

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ourpresidents: Medicare Turns 50 TodayOn July 30, 1965,...









ourpresidents:

Medicare Turns 50 Today

On July 30, 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed Medicare into law.  The event took place at the Harry S. Truman Presidential Library and LBJ told the nation that Medicare “all started with the man from Independence.”

Truman was the first president to publicly endorse a national health insurance program.

As a Senator, Truman had become alarmed at the number of draftees who had failed their induction physicals during World War II. For Truman these rejections meant that the average citizen could not afford visiting a doctor to maintain health. He stated “that is all wrong in my book. I am trying to fix it so the people in the middle-income bracket can live as long as the very rich and the very poor.”

Truman’s first proposal in 1945 provided for physician and hospital insurance for working-aged Americans and their families. A federal health board was to administer the program with the government retaining the right to fix fees for service, and doctors could choose whether or not to participate. This proposal was defeated after, among many factors, the American Medical Association labeled the president’s plan “socialized medicine” taking advantage of the public’s concern over communism in Russia.

Even though he was never able to create a national health care program, Truman was able to draw attention to the country’s health needs, have funds legislated to construct hospitals, expand medical aid to the needy, and provide for expanded medical research.

The Trumans were of modest means, and Harry Truman described the event as a “profound personal experience for me.“  

Harry and Bess received Medicare registration card numbers 1 and 2 in January, 1966. 

Images: 

Harry S. Truman’s Medicare Card #1.

President Lyndon B. Johnson shakes hands with former President Harry S. Truman at the signing of the Medicare Bill. LBJ Library #34897-14.

President Harry S, Truman greets President Lyndon B. Johnson upon his arrival in Independence, Missouri.  7/30/65.

Bess Truman’s Medicare Card #2.

More - Truman’s Plan for National Health Insurance

-from the Truman Library and the LBJ Library

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Frosty Gullies on the Northern Plains of Mars


Seasonal frost commonly forms at middle and high latitudes on Mars, much like winter snow on Earth. However, on Mars most frost is carbon dioxide (dry ice) rather than water ice. This frost appears to cause surface activity, including flows in gullies.

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FREE ON KINDLE TODAY! (30th...



FREE ON KINDLE TODAY! (30th July)

http://ift.tt/1cCF488

http://ift.tt/1ItSPan (UK)

Originally published in 1946 Significant Aspects of Client-Centered Therapy is essential reading for anybody interested in psychotherapy and counseling. In this landmark publication Carl Rogers outlines the origins of client-centered therapy, the process of client-centered therapy, the discovery and capacity of the client and the client-centered nature of the therapeutic relationship.

Bonus Content:

Significant Aspects of Client-Centered Therapy builds upon some of Carl Rogers’ previously published work. Among the most notable of these earlier articles were The Processes of Therapy and The Development of Insight in A Counseling Relationship; both of which are also presented in full.

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While in college, Jesse Owens set three world records and tied...



While in college, Jesse Owens set three world records and tied a fourth. And he did it all within 45 minutes. It is widely considered one of the greatest 45 minutes in sports history.

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July 30th 1818: Emily Brontë bornOn this day in 1818, English...


Emily's signature


Emily Brontë (1818 - 1848)


Original title page of 'Wuthering Heights'


Emily's signature as Ellis Bell

July 30th 1818: Emily Brontë born

On this day in 1818, English author Emily Brontë was born in Thornton, Yorkshire. The daughter of a clergyman, Emily Brontë and her family moved to Haworth when Emily was three years old. The family suffered several tragedies early in Emily’s life, with her mother and two elder sisters dying within four years of each other.  Despite having limited formal education, Emily and her surviving sisters - Charlotte and Anne - demonstrated great interest and talent in writing; Emily and Anne wrote several stories set in a fictional world called Gondal. Emily spent some time as a teacher before traveling to Brussels with Charlotte, with the intent of learning foreign languages to open a school. However, these plans never came to fruition, and in 1846 the three sisters discovered each other’s poetry and published them, under male aliases, in a collection entitled Poems by Currer, Ellis, and Acton Bell (Emily being Ellis). This book sold few copies, and ‘Ellis Bell’ found little more success with her 1847 novel Wuthering Heights, which was published the same year as her sister Charlotte’s Jane Eyre. Now considered a classic, the wild novel which offended Victorian sensibilities focuses on the Earnshaw and Linton families and centres around the character of Heathcliff. Since Emily Brontë‘s death from tuberculosis in 1848, aged thirty, Wuthering Heights has become more widely appreciated, and the Brontës remain iconic literary figures.

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scienceyoucanlove: Nigeria Marks 1 Year With No New Polio...







scienceyoucanlove:

Nigeria Marks 1 Year With No New Polio Cases

By MICHELLE FAUL

LAGOS, Nigeria (AP) – Once stigmatized as the world’s polio epicenter, Nigeria on Friday celebrates its first year with no reported case of the crippling disease, having overcome obstacles ranging from Islamic extremists who assassinated vaccinators to rumors the vaccine was a plot to sterilize Muslims.

Just 20 years ago this West African nation was recording 1,000 polio cases a year - the highest in the world. The last recorded case of a child paralyzed by the wild polio virus endemic in Nigeria’s impoverished and mainly Muslim north was on July 24, 2014.

“We are celebrating the first time ever that Nigeria has gone without a case of polio, but with caution,” Dr. Tunji Funsho, chairman of Rotary International’s polio campaign in Nigeria, told The Associated Press.

If there are no new cases and laboratory tests remain negative in the next few weeks, the World Health Organization will take Nigeria off the list of polio-endemic countries, said Oliver Rosenbauer of the U.N. agency’s polio unit.

Nigeria is the last African country on that list.

The two remaining countries are Pakistan, which recorded 28 new cases this year, and Afghanistan, with five, said Rosenbauer. It’s a 99 percent reduction since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative began in 1988, when one of the world’s most feared diseases was endemic in 125 countries and was paralyzing nearly 1,000 children every day.

Polio shows up unsuspiciously as a fever and cold, followed quickly by acute paralysis as the virus destroys nerve cells. The disease mainly affects children under 5. The virus invades the body through the mouth and multiplies in the intestine, then is spread through the feces. It is highly contagious with infected but asymptomatic carriers able to spread it silently and swiftly.

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