04 março 2015



Daniel Kahneman was born.

GO HERE —> http://ift.tt/1eWNk1f For Free Psychology Information & Resources.

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biomedicalephemera:Area of distribution of the three branches of...


Area of distribution of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve

The trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V) has three primary branches: the ophthalmic (V1), maxillary (V2), and mandibular (V3). Each of these branches has sub-branches, which correspond to a fairly specific part of the jaw and face.

When a dentist injects a nerve block (anesthetic) into the jaw to perform dental procedures, they know exactly what tertiary branch of the trigeminal they’re trying to hit - however, as demonstrated on the right-hand side, there’s a lot of variation between individuals, especially in the dentally-relevant nerves!

The most commonly performed nerve block is blocking of the the inferior alveolar nerve (a branch of the mandibular nerve), which numbs the mandible on one side, including the teeth, lip, and parts of the tongue. When the teeth of the upper jaw (maxilla) must be worked on, the nerve block often feels more localized - as the place where the maxillary (V2) nerve branches apart is much more difficult to reach with a needle, the sub-branches are generally blocked, instead.

Atlas of Applied Topographical Human Anatomy. J. Howell Evans, 1906.

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Pillars and Jets in the Pelican Nebula

What dark structures arise from the Pelican Nebula? Visible as a bird-shaped nebula toward the constellation of a bird (Cygnus, the Swan), the Pelican Nebula is a place dotted with newly formed stars but fouled with dark dust. These smoke-sized dust grains formed in the cool atmospheres of young stars and were dispersed by stellar winds and explosions. Impressive Herbig-Haro jets are seen emitted by a star on the right that is helping to destroy the light year-long dust pillar that contains it. The featured image was scientifically-colored to emphasize light emitted by small amounts of ionized nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur in the nebula made predominantly of hydrogen and helium. The Pelican Nebula (IC 5067 and IC 5070) is about 2,000 light-years away and can be found with a small telescope to the northeast of the bright star Deneb.

from NASA http://ift.tt/1GipuPH

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Marijuana’s Medical FutureAs more states legalize treatment,...

Marijuana’s Medical Future

As more states legalize treatment, scientists are learning how the plant’s chemicals may help conditions ranging from brain injuries to cancer

Edward Maa did not plan to become a marijuana researcher. But a few years ago, when the neurologist and epilepsy specialist surveyed his patients about their use of alternative medicines, he discovered that more than a third had turned to marijuana to try to control their seizures. “I had no idea,” says Maa, who is chief of the Comprehensive Epilepsy Program at Denver Health.

Now he is trying to impose some scientific rigor on what has become a very big and unscientific ad hoc experiment in his state, where medical marijuana use is legal. According to the Epilepsy Foundation of Colorado, the widely reported case of Charlotte Figi, a child whose nearly constant seizures were dramatically curtailed with cannabidiol, a marijuana ingredient, has helped trigger an influx of families from around the U.S. seeking similar treatment for their children with seizure disorders. Maa wants to move beyond anecdote and into data. He is monitoring 150 epilepsy patients who all take a product derived from the same strain of marijuana that Figi used, provided by the same source. Over the course of a year, he intends to compare dosage to seizure activity and side effects, as well as patient characteristics, to see if any patterns suggest the drug is effective—or not—in particular situations. “My position is, let’s see what’s going on,” Maa says. “Let’s see if this is helpful and try to understand what we are seeing.”

Understanding the biology and chemistry behind marijuana’s claimed medical benefits is becoming extremely important now that 23 states and the District of Columbia allow the use of marijuana to treat some medical conditions, including pain, nausea and glaucoma. Other states are expected to follow suit. Four states and the District of Columbia have legalized it for recreational use as well. Although the federal government still lists marijuana as a Schedule I drug, a class “with no currently accepted medical use,” a body of recent research—most of it done in test tubes and animals, but some done in people—suggests that cannabinoids, which are the active ingredients in marijuana, may have medicinal uses even beyond the approved ones. They might protect the brain from the effects of trauma, ease the spasms of multiple sclerosis and reduce epileptic seizures. Further preliminary work indicates that the chemicals may slow the growth of tumors and reduce brain damage in Alzheimer’s disease.


The chemical that induces marijuana’s trippy effects, delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was isolated in 1964. Several other components have been described since, including cannabidiol, the compound used by the epilepsy patients, which does not make people high. In the late 1980s and early 1990s scientists began to identify and map two groups of molecules, known as receptors, in the central nervous system and immune system that help cannabinoids bind to cells. That interaction appears to play a critical role in marijuana’s various effects. (The brain contains small amounts of its own, naturally occurring cannabinoids, which also bind to these receptors.)

CB1, the more common of the two main receptors, is widely distributed in the brain, with high concentrations in the cortex and the hippocampus (a region important to forming new memories). CB1 receptors also occur in parts of the brain involved in pain perception. There are low levels of CB1 in the brain stem, where cardiac and respiratory functions are regulated; their relative scarcity in this region may explain why, unlike opioids, even heavy doses of cannabinoids do not pose acute threats to the heart or your ability to breathe.

CB2, the other main cannabinoid receptor, is found mostly in the immune system. Its presence there interests scientists because the immune system triggers inflammation, and studies show marijuana can have an anti-inflammatory effect.

In the brain, when the psychoactive component THC links up with CB1, it slows down or blocks the release of a variety of neurotransmitters—signaling molecules released by neurons—including glutamate and dopamine. The result is the high that marijuana is best known for, often along with temporary impairment of short-term memory. Two other well-known effects of the THC-CB1 linkage are the stimulation of appetite, a boon for AIDS patients and others who need to maintain body weight, and the suppression of nausea, a benefit for some cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. THC has also been shown to disrupt the transmission of pain signals.

Recent research suggests that THC might also protect neurons from trauma. Early test-tube studies pointed to this effect, and so has one clinical trial published last October. In it, trauma surgeon David Plurad and his colleagues did a retrospective review of 446 traumatic brain injury (TBI) cases treated at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center from January 2010 through December 2012. Their study, reported in the journal American Surgeon,found that 82 of those patients tested positive for THC and two of them died, for a mortality rate of 2.4 percent. The mortality rate among the 364 patients who did not have THC in their system was 11.5 percent, nearly five times higher. After taking into account other factors, such as age, severity of injury and blood alcohol level, the researchers concluded that the link between THC and a lower death rate in these patients stood up. Although the mechanisms are not fully understood, previous research suggests that both THC and cannabidiol may increase blood flow in the brain, bringing needed oxygen as well as nutrients to endangered neurons. Because they inhibit glutamate, they may also prevent toxic effects that occur after brain trauma, when neurons can get overstimulated by the neurotransmitter.

Marijuana, of course, impairs perception and reaction time, so it may have contributed to the accidents that Plurad studied at the same time that it helped some people survive them. The irony is not lost on the surgeon. “There is never going to be one answer for marijuana,” Plurad says. “It’s good for you, it’s bad for you. It will never be one or the other. It will always be somewhere in between.” Some research, including a recent study funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, has shown that heavy use of marijuana (at least four times a week for the past six months in the paper) can lead to adverse changes in parts of the brain associated with reward and decision making. Plurad warns against such heavy use and use by teenagers. “As a clinical person,” he says, “what’s interesting to me is that when you get down to the nitty-gritty of taking care of patients, it’s cheap. And if it has valuable applications, then we should pursue it.”


Drug companies are already in pursuit, working on compounds that show the benefits without the cognitive problems. GW Pharmaceuticals, a British firm, has developed two marijuana derived drugs, Epidiolex and Sativex. Epidiolex, a purified form of cannabidiol, is intended to treat seizures and is being tested in an international clinical trial led by the University of California, San Francisco, Epilepsy Center. It has already been granted orphan drug status—a path to approval based on smaller clinical studies than normal—by the Food and Drug Administration. Sativex, a mouth spray that contains THC and cannabidiol, is approved in Canada and several other countries, but not the U.S., for the treatment of muscle spasticity in multiple sclerosis. It is also being tested as a pain treatment. As Maa and others point out, pharmaceutical cannabinoid medicines offer consistent potency and make dosage easier to control—critical factors in many cases, especially with pediatric patients.

In addition to these conditions, studies in animals and in cells, published in 2014, suggest that cannabinoids might eventually play a helpful role in treating three other kinds of disease. After inducing human breast cancer tumors in mice, researchers in the U.K. found they could shrink the tumors by administering THC. The chemical may disrupt cancer cell growth as it binds to CB2 receptors, which are much more abundant on cancer cells than on healthy ones. At the University of South Carolina, a team discovered that THC could reduce the inflammation associated with autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of certain genes involved in the immune response. And at the University of South Florida, researchers working with cells in a lab showed that extremely low concentrations of THC could reduce produc- tion of beta amyloid, the protein that forms the plaque abundant in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients. It will, however, be several years before scientists learn how well THC will work, if at all, in patients with the condition.

For Lester Grinspoon, the new findings are gratifying but not surprising. Grinspoon, associate professor of psychiatry emeritus at Harvard Medical School, is the American godfather of medical marijuana. Now 86, Grinspoon used marijuana to treat his young son’s chemotherapy-related nausea in the 1960s. He wrote a book about marijuana’s benefits in 1971 and, after decades of research and controversy, continues to endorse them (see his Web site: RxMarijuana.com). He is pleased the nation at last appears to be catching up with him. “It’s about time,” he says. He notes that before World War II, marijuana was listed as a medicine in the country’s encyclopedia of drugs, the United States Pharmacopeia. “When marijuana is finally readmitted to the U.S. Pharmacopeia, a place it lost in 1942, it will be seen as one of the safest, least toxic, most versatile drugs of that whole compendium,” he predicts.


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Source for more facts follow NowYouKno

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jackpowerx:pro-choice-or-no-voice:traxxious:These people,...




These people, Republicans no less are fucked up.

So pregnant people are comparable to fridges now? Jfc.

Last I checked, people weren’t forced to keep milk in their fridge if they decided they didn’t want milk any more.

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In 1912, a Parisian orphanage held a lottery to raise funds...

In 1912, a Parisian orphanage held a lottery to raise funds — and raffle prizes were babies! The name of this event was the apt “Lottery of Babies”

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Source for more facts follow NowYouKno

Source for more facts follow NowYouKno

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O cemitério de Trunyan

O bizarro cemitério de Trunyan, junto do lago Batur, na Indonésia, é um local conhecido pelo fato de ter os mortos à vista de todos, decompondo-se ao ar livre. Este estranho costume faz parte da cultura dos descendentes e dos nativos locais. A tribo Bali Aga possui um ritual de morte que aos olhos dos ocidentais é considerado como estranho. Após a morte de uma pessoa, ao contrário de alguém o sepultar, é colocado ao ar livre, coberto com um folha branca ou com folhas de bambu, junto a uma figueira. Estas árvores são consideradas "santas" pela comunidade e libertam um odor que disfarça o cheiro da decomposição.

Este ritual tem centenas de anos e só é praticado por esta tribo. Bali, que antes era apenas um destino turístico, começou agora a tornar-se num local mais atrativo para os visitantes estrangeiros. Atualmente, é comum ver os membros dos Bali Aga a pedir dinheiro aos turistas para lhes explicarem o seu costume. A proposta foi bem acolhida e apesar do cheiro intenso, o cemitério de Trunyan acabou por se tornar num sítio perfeito para passar férias.

Adaptado de: noitesinistra

via @notiun

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Health Department Launches New Ad Campaign to Promote Condom...

Health Department Launches New Ad Campaign to Promote Condom Use

New ads in English and Spanish encourage New Yorkers to “be sexy, be safe” with NYC Condoms

Nearly 90 percent of respondents to recent surveys indicated that they had picked up a NYC Condom at least once in their lifetime, either for themselves or for friends or family members.

(From New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene)

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Well, that’s my weekend sorted!Studying Psychology? GO...

Well, that’s my weekend sorted!

Studying Psychology? GO HERE —> http://ift.tt/1eWNk1f for free psychology information & resources.

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interesting-linkz:What Kind of Tumblr Blogger Are You? Weirdest...


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interesting-linkz:must-follow-blogs: So-True.tumblr.com VinesNow...

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Island of Hawaii From the International Space Station

From the International Space Station, European Space Agency astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti (@AstroSamantha) took this photograph of the island of Hawaii and posted it to social media on Feb. 28, 2015. Cristoforetti wrote, "And suddenly as we flew over the Pacific... the island of #Hawaii with its volcanoes! #HelloEarth" Crewmembers on the space station photograph the Earth from their unique point of view located 200 miles above the surface as part of the Crew Earth Observations program. Photographs record how the planet is changing over time, from human-caused changes like urban growth and reservoir construction, to natural dynamic events such as hurricanes, floods and volcanic eruptions. Astronauts have used hand-held cameras to photograph the Earth for more than 40 years, beginning with the Mercury missions in the early 1960s. The ISS maintains an altitude between 220 - 286 miles (354 - 460 km) above the Earth, and an orbital inclination of 51.6˚, providing an excellent stage for observing most populated areas of the world. Image Credit: NASA/ESA/Samantha Cristoforetti

from NASA http://ift.tt/1zJxMrz

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The name Inca originally did not refer to a race or a nation. When Francisco Pizarro came to South...

The name Inca originally did not refer to a race or a nation. When Francisco Pizarro came to South America in 1532, Inca meant “king” or “ruler”.

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March 4th 1519: Cortés arrives in MexicoOn this day in 1519, the...

Hernán Cortés (1485 - 1547)

The Conquest of Tenochtitlan by an unknown artist

March 4th 1519: Cortés arrives in Mexico

On this day in 1519, the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés arrived in Mexico. When he was around twenty, the young explorer left Spain to make his fortune in the Americas. Initially sailing to Santo Domingo, in 1518 Cortés left there for Mexico in search of its fabled wealth. A month after his arrival, Cortés established the settlement of Veracruz, marking the beginnings of the Spanish conquest and colonisation of Mexico. At the time of the Spanish landing, Mexico was ruled by the Aztec empire under the leadership of Montezuma. His ruthless army marched to the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán, and were initially welcomed supposedly as god figures. However, relations rapidly deteriorated after fighting broke out between the conquistadors and residents of Tenochtitlán, which resulted in Cortés taking Montezuma hostage. While initially driven out of the city by the Aztecs, Cortés returned and sieged the city, which fell in 1521. Cortés then consolidated Spanish colonial rule over Mexico, Christening it ‘New Spain’, which devastated the indigenous population through warfare and disease. After being removed from Mexico by the Spanish authorities, Cortés continued to explore Central America, and spent the last few years of his life back in Spain, where he died in December 1547. While Cortés was gone, his legacy remained in the endurance of Spanish colonies in Mexico, and the persecution of the native population.

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