30 abril 2015

Information Via: http://ift.tt/19V5cyI On This Day in...



Information Via: http://ift.tt/19V5cyI On This Day in Psychology: A Showcase of Great Pioneers and Defining Moments.

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Across the Sun


A long solar filament stretches across the relatively calm surface of the Sun in this telescopic snap shot from April 27. The negative or inverted narrowband image was made in the light of ionized hydrogen atoms. Seen at the upper left, the magnificent curtain of magnetized plasma towers above surface and actually reaches beyond the Sun's edge. How long is the solar filament? About as long as the distance from Earth to Moon, illustrated by the scale insert at the left. Tracking toward the right across the solar disk a day later the long filament erupted, lifting away from the Sun's surface. Monitored by Sun staring satellites, a coronal mass ejection was also blasted from the site but is expected to swing wide of our fair planet.

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A Smarter BandageThe injured soldiers had been treated well...



A Smarter Bandage

The injured soldiers had been treated well since their return from fighting in Afghanistan. At the San Antonio Military Medical Center in Texas, surgeons had carefully grafted healthy tissue over their burns and wounds, using microsurgery to connect their blood vessels to the new skin. But the patients still faced an uncertain recovery. The vessels might not supply enough oxygen for the transplants to thrive.

When Conor Evans visited San Antonio in 2010 and saw these soldiers, he realized that conventional techniques for monitoring oxygen levels did not work very well, and they often failed to give enough warning if the graft was failing. “What these physicians do is nothing short of amazing,” says Evans, a chemist at Harvard Medical School and the Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital. “But the sensors they had just weren’t cutting it.”

So Evans built a better bandage. He and his colleagues started with dyes that react to different oxygen levels, added nanosized molecules that control the dye activity, and used them to create a liquid bandage that indicates the health of the wound it covers. “The bandage changes color, just like a traffic light, from green through yellow and orange to red,” depending on the amount of oxygen present, Evans says. After success in laboratory animals in 2014, human trials are set to begin this year.

By taking advantage of newfound abilities to manipulate materials as small as a few billionths of a meter, scientists such as Evans can not only improve rapid health assessments, they can also turn wound dressings into precise drug-delivery systems “Nanotechnology plays a large role in being able to control the amounts released and how well formulations get to the area of a wound that we need them to reach,” says Paula Hammond, a chemist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. That precision has a major advantage over flooding body parts with drugs, only some of which find their targets. 

COMING UP FOR AIR

poor wound healing caused by a lack of oxygen affects more than six million people in the U.S. every year, and the medical costs are estimated to reach $25 billion. Typically physicians stick needle electrodes into injured tissue to measure tissue oxygenation, but the needles can be painful and give readings from only a single point in a large wound. Evans’s bandage, in contrast, can provide an instant oxygen map of the entire injury.

It relies on two dyes mixed into a quick-drying liquid bandage that can be painted onto wounds. A brief burst of blue light energizes and illuminates both dyes: one glows bright red, the other green. Then oxygen molecules switch off the red dye’s phosphorescence, so the bandage will appear green if the adjacent tissue is bathed in oxygen and is healthy. But if areas of the wound are oxygen-starved, patches of yellow, orange and, finally, an alarming red shine through. 

The key to the alert is a nanoscale addition to the red dye molecules. Evans coupled each of these molecules to a dendrimer, a treelike molecule with a branching structure up to two nanometers across. This molecular thicket prevents neighboring molecules from overlapping and quenching one another’s phosphorescence. They also physically block some—but not all—of the oxygen molecules from reaching the dye; starting with lower levels makes any changes more obvious.

In a hospital, the warning red would prompt a nurse to photograph the bandage, and doctors would to try to improve the blood and oxygen circulation in the trouble spots. In principle, the bandage could work at home, Evans says: patients could take their own bandage snapshots and send them to a doctor for assessment.

Evans’s team has also created alternative dyes that are much more efficient at converting blue light into red. “Our new bandage is so bright that it can be seen with very low dye loading, in a sunlit room,” Evans says. In the future, the bandage might even be engineered to dispense therapeutic drugs into wounds, he adds.

DRUG-DELIVERY DRESSING

in hammond’s lab, researchers have already loaded bandages with nanoengineered therapeutic substances. They have developed coatings that slowly release RNA or proteins, molecules that can shut down certain cell activities that might hamper wound recovery. Some RNA molecules, called small interfering RNAs, can hobble the ability of genes that give rise to problem-causing proteins, for example.

Her team encapsulated some of these RNAs within calcium phosphate shells, each about 200 nanometers wide, sandwiched the shells between two layers of a positively charged polymer made of biological molecules and then “buttered” one side of this sandwich with a negatively charged clay. (The opposite charges stick the layers to each other.) Stacking up 25 of these sandwiches formed a coating roughly half a micron thick, which Hammond placed on a conventional nylon bandage. 

As natural enzymes in the body break down the layers, the dressing discharges the RNA molecules into the wound over the course of a week. The slow, steady release could reduce side effects caused by a single, large dose of a conventional drug; this release method could also ensure that the wound is constantly treated.

Hammond has also used this so-called layer-by-layer coating to supply a therapeutic protein that aids wound healing in diabetic mice. The protein is already available as an ointment, but she says that the formulation is not very effective—after initially delivering a huge burst of protein, its activity fades away within 24 hours. Hammond’s bandage, in contrast, sustains a steady flow over five to seven days to maintain the optimum dose of protein.

The layer-by-layer strategy could improve treatments for another ailment: coronary artery disease, which is caused by a buildup of plaque in vessels that carry blood through heart muscle. Treatment usually involves widening the artery with an inflatable balloon and keeping it open by inserting a small tube of stainless-steel mesh known as a stent. Some stents come loaded with therapeutic molecules to prevent the artery from narrowing again, but patients must then take more drugs to reduce the associated risks of blood clots that could break free from the area.

Treating the artery with doses of DNA, carefully delivered by devices with nanoscale coatings, could offer a better solution, according to David Lynn, a chemist at the University of Wisconsin– Madison. Inside the body, the DNA could make cells produce a protein that helps to stabilize and reconstruct blood vessel walls. To deliver such genetic therapies exactly when and where they are needed, Lynn has coated stents with successive layers of DNA and a biodegradable polymer, each several nanometers thick. By varying the number of layers, researchers can control the amount of DNA released into blood vessel walls. Experiments on pigs showed that the DNA gradually penetrated the surrounding tissue during the days after the stent was implanted. Fine-tuning the design of the coating, other tests show, can change the rate of release. “We now have reasonable control that allows us to time the release from seconds to months by modifying the structure of the polymer or how we put the film together,” Lynn says.

The basic nanoengineering behind these inventions could be adapted for a wide range of other applications. Lynn is using polymer coatings to deliver biological molecules called peptides that interrupt the chemical conversations among bacteria. Cut off from one another, the bacteria cannot team up to form tough biofilms that resist breakup by antibiotics. Evans, for his part, is using his phosphorescent dyes in tissue samples to identify oxygen-poor tumor cells, which can be particularly resistant to chemotherapy, and he plans to test the technique in animals later this year. The same dye approach could also be used to detect the presence of infectious bacteria in wound tissue or reveal other kinds of molecules. “Really, the sky’s the limit,” Evans says. 

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The Science of Getting DrunkSource













The Science of Getting Drunk

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The only known photograph of a Chinese-American Union soldier,...



The only known photograph of a Chinese-American Union soldier, from the American Civil War. To read the almost unbelievable life story of a Chinese-American stowaway who eventually sat guard over Sitting Bull, check out historical-nonfiction.com’s latest post

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ageofdestruction: dead wrong: Mercury, stars, and solar corona,...

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This camel was buried in a tomb during the Northern...



This camel was buried in a tomb during the Northern Wei–Northern Qi dynasty, during the mid- to late-500s. Camels had first started appearing in northern Chinese tombs around the 200s and became increasingly popular. dapted to their natural habitat in the steppes and mountainous deserts north of China, camels were used to transport military goods to and from the harsh frontier, and as a mount for traders and even members of the upper classes. The tomb’s owner presumably hoped that this ceramic camel would continue work for them in the afterlife.

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April 30th 1803: Louisiana PurchaseOn this day in 1803, the...





April 30th 1803: Louisiana Purchase

On this day in 1803, the United States purchased over 800,000 square miles of territory from France, known as the Louisiana Purchase. The purchase doubled the size of the young nation, opening the West to settlement by Americans. France had long controlled the territory, and despite ceding portions to Spain in 1762, soon re-purchased the Louisiana Territory in 1801. The United States were wary of this development, fearing that Napoleon would seek to expand French control further across the North American continent. For the bargain price of $15,000,000 - averaging at less than 42 cents per acre - the government of Thomas Jefferson purchased the land from France. The agreement was made on April 30th 1803 and the treaty signed on May 2nd. In October of the same year, the United States Senate ratified the treaty, and the transfer of authority was complete by December. Nine years after the agreement, on April 30th 1812, the first state from the territory - Louisiana - was admitted to the Union as the eighteenth state. The purchase is considered one of Jefferson’s greatest achievements.

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In 2002, there were 397 civil offences and 608 penal offences in...



In 2002, there were 397 civil offences and 608 penal offences in Vatican City, which has 455 residents (the smallest number of any sovereign state). That comes to an average of 2.2 crimes per resident. Most of these offences were committed by some of the millions of tourists that visit annually.

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Overview of MESSENGER Spacecraft's Impact Region on Mercury


On April 30th, this region of Mercury's surface will have a new crater! Traveling at 3.91 kilometers per second (over 8,700 miles per hour), the MESSENGER spacecraft will collide with Mercury's surface, creating a crater estimated to be 16 meters (52 feet) in diameter.

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With Destruction, Discovery

The Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 uncovered parts of the lost port city Mahabalipuram, the capital of a powerful kingdom that traded with China, Roma, Greece, Arabia, and Egypt some 1,500 years ago. It is said that the capital was kodalkol or “swelled by the sea” at the height of its glory. The place was already being investigated by archaeologists when the receding waves before the tsunami revealed a temple structure and several rock sculptures.

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Electronic Health Records InfographicHow do electronic health...



Electronic Health Records Infographic

How do electronic health records (EHRs) connect you and your doctor? In the past, medical data was only stored on paper, making it difficult for your health care providers to share your information. Between 2001 and 2011, the number of doctors using anEHRsystem grew about 57%, making it easier for you and all of your doctors to coordinate your care, and often reducing the chance of medical errors. Where are electronic health records headed? In this Infographic, view the history of electronic health records and see how they may improve your health and health care in the future.

(From HealthIT.gov)

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neuromorphogenesis: The Visual Brain - Coloring Our...



















neuromorphogenesis:

The Visual Brain - Coloring Our World

Infographic by Mezzmer Blog

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29 abril 2015

Information Via: http://ift.tt/19V5cyI On This Day in...



Information Via: http://ift.tt/19V5cyI On This Day in Psychology: A Showcase of Great Pioneers and Defining Moments.

Go Here –> http://ift.tt/1eWNk1f for free psychology info & resources.

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"I John Parker, of lawful Age, and Commander of the Militia in Lexington, do testify & declare..."

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NASA pode ter descoberto a dobra espacial de Star Trek

dobra-espacial

A agência espacial já teria produzido algo parecido com a “dobra espacial” Star Trek dentro de um motor experimental.

O conceito de motor de dobra pode parecer algo firmemente enraizada na série de TV de ficção científica Star Trek, mas na década de 1990 o físico Miguel Alcubierre efetivamente teria invocado a ideia de uma “bolha de dobra”, que poderia ser formada em torno de uma nave espacial, usando uma onda especial para contrair o espaço em frente da nave e expandir o espaço atrás dela.

Ao andar dentro desta bolha, a nave espacial seria capaz de viajar longas distâncias sem passar pelo espaço entre elas. Avançando para os dias atuais, a NASA pode ter encontrado a primeira evidência de um campo de dobra da vida real que está sendo produzida por um novo tipo de motor conhecido como o EmDrive.

Desenvolvido pelo cientista americano Guido Fetta, este novo sistema de propulsão pode produzir um impulso sem a necessidade de qualquer tipo de propulsor. Agora, no entanto, há relatos que sugerem que quando os raios lasers são disparados através de câmara de ressonância do EmDrive, estes podem realmente viajar mais rápido que a velocidade da luz, uma descoberta que poderia indicar que a unidade está produzindo algo como um campo de dobra ou bolha.

Os resultados ainda têm que ser confirmados, mas isso poderia significar que não só é possível, como a dobra espacial já pode ter sido inventada ela Nasa, ainda que por acidente.










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seamusfnnigan:Finnish mythology series: Ajatar In Finnish...





seamusfnnigan:

Finnish mythology series: Ajatar

In Finnish folklore, Ajatar (also known as Ajattara or Ajattaro) is an evil female spirit of the forest, “the devil of the woods”. She has many forms and depending on the description, she’s said to be a witch, a ghost, a snake or a dragon. Ajatar spreads diseases and plague and anyone who looks at her becomes sick. It was believed that Ajatar was the reason why people got lost in the woods and her name is probably derived from the Finnish word ajattaa; ‘to lead’, ‘to pursue’.
mythos
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The Visual Brain - Coloring Our WorldInfographic by Mezzmer Blog



















The Visual Brain - Coloring Our World

Infographic by Mezzmer Blog

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April 29th 1770: Cook lands at Botany BayOn this day in 1770,...


Cook lands at Botany Bay - E.P Fox


Captain James Cook (1728 - 1779)


Plaque marks spot of 1770 landing

April 29th 1770: Cook lands at Botany Bay

On this day in 1770, Captain James Cook and his ship the Endeavour landed at Botany Bay, Australia. Cook’s ‘discovery’ of Australia and his claiming the land for Britain set the stage for further exploration of the nation and settlement by the British, initially using the island as a penal colony. This colonisation was accompanied with a campaign of violence and persecution against the indigenous Australians, and has left a legacy that is still felt today in modern Australia. Botany Bay is in Sydney, New South Wales and was initially called ‘Sting Ray Harbour’ by Cook due to the stingrays they caught there, but he later named it Botany Bay due to the vast quantity of plants there; it was later the site of the arrival of the First Fleet from Europe in 1788. After his seminal voyage to Australia, Cook continued his travels and undertook three voyages in total. On the third voyage, Cook landed in Hawaii where the indigenous islanders allegedly initially worshipped him as a god, as his arrival fit the story of the return of their deity Lono. However, relations soon soured, and Cook was eventually killed by native Hawaiians in 1779.

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hello b., I have a question; how do you align your image sequences?

hi!

i’m kind of embarrassed to say - i import the files into photoshop as layers, then line them up by hand and by eye. i hesitate to go into the method further, because i’m sure there are better, automated ways of doing it. pappubahry was always good at that sort of thing - he doesn’t seem to be active on tumblr at the moment, but you might be able to catch him on twitter.

if you are going to align images in photoshop, my method to align images A, B, C, D, etc., is to invert image A, then set the opacity of B to 50%. this makes any matching areas a neutral grey, and any non-matching areas (e.g. under- or overlapping edges) appear as black or white. then nudge or transform B until the black and white areas are minimized and the images are aligned. set B back to 100% opacity and repeat for C, D, etc. don’t forget to invert A back to it’s original form when you’re done.

again, i wouldn’t recommend the method - there are sure to be bits of software that do the same thing at the click of a button - but it’s what i do, and it might be useful sometime!

thanks, as always, for getting in touch.

regards,
b.

age
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Realize 3 simpatias poderosas para o amor

Confira a receita de três simpatias para o amor

Esse ano é regido pelo astro Marte, que promete abrir caminhos para grandes conquistas afetivas. Assim, as energias estão a favor daqueles que procuram encontrar sua alma gêmea.

Pensando nisso, o Astrocentro separou três simpatias poderosas para você fortalecer o amor neste ano. Aproveite essas vibrações positivas e encontre sua cara metade!

Veja abaixo a receita de 3 simpatias poderosas para o amor

Simpatia para viver uma paixão intensa

Ingredientes:

  • Tecido vermelho
  • Tesoura
  • Vela

Recorte um coração em um pedaço de tecido vermelho. Deixe-o ao sol e, no início da noite, enterre no jardim da sua casa. Após esse procedimento, acenda uma vela para o seu anjo da guarda e diga “Peço que neste ano encontre minha alma gêmea e através desse feitiço o meu relacionamento receba boas vibrações”.

Simpatia para ter sorte no amor

Ingredientes:

  • Semente de olho de cabra
  • Saquinho vermelho
  • Linha vermelha

Pegue uma semente de olho de cabra e coloque em um saquinho vermelho. Feche, costurando com linha vermelha, e carregue com você pelo tempo que achar necessário.

Simpatia para arrumar um namorado

Ingredientes:

  • Um litro de água
  • Uma vasilha
  • Rosa vermelha
  • Uma colher (sopa) de mel

Em uma noite de Lua Cheia, ferva um litro de água e acrescente pétalas de rosas vermelhas. Coloque a mistura em uma vasilha, espere esfriar e acrescente uma colher de mel. Depois, despeje a simpatia para o amor em seu corpo.

Dicas na hora de realizar o feitiço

  • Nunca realize rituais afetivos após brigas, pois as vibrações negativas podem interferir no efeito da simpatia.
  • É essencial ter fé no momento em que estiver realizando o feitiço
  • Use apenas objetos novos nas simpatias para o amor

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stars, mercury, and solar corona, photographed by stereo a,...



stars, mercury, and solar corona, photographed by stereo a, january 2009.

27 frames, photographed over 36 hours, 2nd-3rd january. the sun is out of frame right.

image credit: nasa/stereo. animation: ageofdestruction.

age
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