03 junho 2015

TODAY IN THE HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGYVia:...



TODAY IN THE HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY

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Flyby Image of Saturns Sponge Moon Hyperion


Why does this moon look like a sponge? To better investigate, NASA and ESA sent the Saturn-orbiting robotic spacecraft Cassini zooming past Saturn's moon Hyperion, once again, earlier this week. One of the images beamed back to Earth is featured above, raw and unprocessed. Visible, as expected, are many unusually shaped craters with an unusual dark material at the bottom. Although Hyperion spans about 250 kilometers, its small gravitational tug on Cassini indicates that it is mostly empty space and so has very low surface gravity. Therefore, the odd shapes of many of Hyperion's craters are thought to result from impacts that primarily compress and eject surface material -- instead of the more typical round craters that appear after a circular shock wave that explosively redistributes surface material. Cassini is on track for another flyby of Saturn's Dione in about two weeks.

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Speedometer in the brain In a familiar environment our...



Speedometer in the brain

In a familiar environment our movements are purposeful. For example, if we leave our office desk for a coffee break, we naturally follow a predefined route that has been stored in our memory: Through the office door, left into the hall, past the windows. To keep us on track, our brain has to process varying sensory impressions quickly. “This is a fundamental issue our brain has to deal with. Not just on our way to the coffee machine, but any time we move in space. For example when we are on a bike or in a car,” explains Remy. With increasing speed, the data rate also increases, he emphasizes: “The faster we move, the less time the brain has to take in environmental cues and to associate them with a location on our memorized spatial map. Our perception therefore has to keep pace with the speed of movement so that we remember the right way to go. Otherwise we end up at the copy machine instead of the coffee machine.”

Rhythmic fluctuations

It has been known for some time that the hippocampus - the part of the brain that controls memory, particularly spatial memory - adjusts to the speed of locomotion. “The electrical activity of the hippocampus undergoes rhythmic fluctuations. The faster we move, the faster certain nerve cells are activated,” says Remy. “This increased activation rate sensitizes the brain. It becomes more receptive to the changing sensory impressions that have to be processed when moving.”

But how does the brain actually know how fast a movement is? Previously there was no answer to this question. Now, Remy and his colleagues have decoded the mechanism. For this, they stimulated specific areas within the mouse brain and recorded the ensuing brain activity and the mice’s locomotion. “We have identified the neural circuits in mice that link their spatial memory to the speed of their movement. This interplay is an important foundation for a functioning spatial memory,” says Remy. “We assume that humans have similar nerve cells, as the brains of mice and humans have a very similar structure in these regions.”

Small cell group

The cells in question are located in the “medial septum”, a part of the brain directly connected to the hippocampus. They make up a relatively small group comprising a few thousand cells. “They gather information from sensory and locomotor systems, determine the speed of movement and transmit this information to the hippocampus. In this way, they tune the spatial memory systems for optimized processing of sensory stimuli during locomotion,” explains Remy. However, these circuits have even more functions. “We have found that they also give the start signal for locomotion and that they actively control its speed. Until now, this control function was almost exclusively ascribed to the motor cerebral cortex.”

These newly discovered nerve cells are linked with areas of the brain that are affected by Parkinson’s in humans. This disease is associated with movement-related symptoms and can cause dementia. “In this respect, our results go beyond the workings of spatial memory; they also have the potential to provide new insights into how memory systems and the execution of movements are affected in Parkinson’s disease,” says Remy.

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Missing link found between brain, immune system — with major...



Missing link found between brain, immune system — with major disease implications

In a stunning discovery that overturns decades of textbook teaching, researchers at the University of Virginia School of Medicine have determined that the brain is directly connected to the immune system by vessels previously thought not to exist.

That such vessels could have escaped detection when the lymphatic system has been so thoroughly mapped throughout the body is surprising on its own, but the true significance of the discovery lies in the effects it could have on the study and treatment of neurological diseases ranging from autism to Alzheimer’s disease to multiple sclerosis.

“Instead of asking, ‘How do we study the immune response of the brain?,’ ‘Why do multiple sclerosis patients have the immune attacks?,’ now we can approach this mechanistically – because the brain is like every other tissue connected to the peripheral immune system through meningeal lymphatic vessels,” said Jonathan Kipnis, a professor in U.Va.’s Department of Neuroscience and director of U.Va.’s Center for Brain Immunology and Glia. “It changes entirely the way we perceive the neuro-immune interaction. We always perceived it before as something esoteric that can’t be studied. But now we can ask mechanistic questions.“

He added, “We believe that for every neurological disease that has an immune component to it, these vessels may play a major role. [It’s] hard to imagine that these vessels would not be involved in a [neurological] disease with an immune component.”

Kevin Lee, who chairs the Department of Neuroscience, described his reaction to the discovery by Kipnis’ lab: “The first time these guys showed me the basic result, I just said one sentence: ‘They’ll have to change the textbooks.’ There has never been a lymphatic system for the central nervous system, and it was very clear from that first singular observation – and they’ve done many studies since then to bolster the finding – that it will fundamentally change the way people look at the central nervous system’s relationship with the immune system.”

Even Kipnis was skeptical initially. “I really did not believe there are structures in the body that we are not aware of. I thought the body was mapped,” he said. “I thought that these discoveries ended somewhere around the middle of the last century. But apparently they have not.

The discovery was made possible by the work of Antoine Louveau, a postdoctoral fellow in Kipnis’ lab. The vessels were detected after Louveau developed a method to mount a mouse’s meninges – the membranes covering the brain – on a single slide so that they could be examined as a whole. “It was fairly easy, actually,” he said. “There was one trick: We fixed the meninges within the skullcap, so that the tissue is secured in its physiological condition, and then we dissected it. If we had done it the other way around, it wouldn’t have worked.”

After noticing vessel-like patterns in the distribution of immune cells on his slides, he tested for lymphatic vessels and there they were. The impossible existed.

The soft-spoken Louveau recalled the moment: “I called Jony [Kipnis] to the microscope and I said, ‘I think we have something.’”

As to how the brain’s lymphatic vessels managed to escape notice all this time, Kipnis described them as “very well hidden” and noted that they follow a major blood vessel down into the sinuses, an area difficult to image. “It’s so close to the blood vessel, you just miss it,” he said. “If you don’t know what you’re after, you just miss it.

“Live imaging of these vessels was crucial to demonstrate their function, and it would not be possible without collaboration with Tajie Harris,” Kipnis noted. Harris is an assistant professor of neuroscience and a member of the Center for Brain Immunology and Glia. Kipnis also saluted the “phenomenal” surgical skills of Igor Smirnov, a research associate in the Kipnis lab whose work was critical to the imaging success of the study.

The unexpected presence of the lymphatic vessels raises a tremendous number of questions that now need answers, both about the workings of the brain and the diseases that plague it.

For example, take Alzheimer’s disease. “In Alzheimer’s, there are accumulations of big protein chunks in the brain,” Kipnis said. “We think they may be accumulating in the brain because they’re not being efficiently removed by these vessels.” He noted that the vessels look different with age, so the role they play in aging is another avenue to explore.

And there’s an enormous array of other neurological diseases, from autism to multiple sclerosis, that must be reconsidered in light of the presence of something science insisted did not exist.

Image:  The lymphatic system map: old (left) and new.

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Some of My Favorite Tao Te Ching Quotations

The Tao Te Ching (0r Daodejing, or Dao De Jing) is a text of philosophic and religious thought, the foundation of Daoism. It is a very complicated belief system that rather than trying to explain,  I will simply present some of my favorite quotes and let you make of them what you will.

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moon & sun, photographed by sdo, 30th january 2014.a transit...





moon & sun, photographed by sdo, 30th january 2014.

a transit of the sun by the moon, created by sdo’s perspective in orbit around the earth. photographs arranged here to keep the moon fixed. another view of the same event here.

image credit: nasa/sdo, aia/eve/hmi. animation: ageofdestruction.

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For Wine Lovers! http://ift.tt/1EXhxcR



For Wine Lovers!

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Três simpatias para Santo Antônio

3 simpatias para Santo Antônio

Dia 12 de junho está chegando, e para todas as solteiras acaba batendo aquelas tristezinha por está sozinha no dia dos namorados, certo? Só que por coincidência dia 13 de junho é o dia do Santo Antônio, e você sabe que Santo é esse?

Santo Antônio foi um Frade que nasceu em Lisboa dia 15 de agosto de 1195 e faleceu em 13 de junho de 1231. Ele é o padroeiro dos casamentos, dos namorados, e as vezes até relacionado as crianças devido sua história com menino Jesus, mas seu talento mesmo é arrumar marido.

Essa fama vem por causa da história de que havia duas moças sem dinheiro para o dote e por isso era impossível encontrar um marido. Reza a lenda então que Santo Antônio teria jogado um saquinho de moedas pela chaminé das moças, dando a elas a oportunidade de casarem. Desde então ficou conhecido por dar uma forcinha para que as pessoas se casassem.

Devido ao dia dos namorados estar chegando e o dia do Santo casamenteiro também, vamos ensinar três simpatias para Santo Antônio te ajudar a resolver seus problemas no campo amoroso. 

Simpatias para Santo Antônio

1- Simpatia para esquecer o ex namorado ou marido

Convenhamos que na chegada dos dias dos namorados ficar com o ex na cabeça não é nada bom, e para ajudar você a esquecer de uma vez o passado, separamos esta simpatia.

Em um domingo, vá a uma igreja do santo próxima de sua casa e leve uma vela branca. Acenda a vela no altar de Santo Antônio e peça a ele para ajudá-la a esquecer e só saia quando a vela estiver apagada. Faça isso por três domingos consecutivos, que no quarto seu coração já estará aliviado.

2- Simpatia para que ele a convide para sair

Depois de conhecer o cara dos seus sonhos, parece uma eternidade que ele não te ligue para chamá-la para sair, não é? Então, porque não damos uma acelerada nesse processo!?

Nessa simpatia para Santo Antônio para fazer com que ele te chame para sair você precisa de um lenço de seda vermelha, uma faca pequena, 50 centímetro de fita vermelha e uma caneta vermelha nova.

Quando chegar a madrugada de uma noite com lua nova, estenda o lenço sobre uma mesa e escreva seu nome, com a caneta, nas quatro pontas do lenço. Depois escreva o nome da pessoa que você estiver interessada até formar um círculo no meio. Faça isso dos dois lados do pano. Em seguida enrole a faca no lenço e amarre com a fita. Leve isso sempre com você na bolsa, e quando conquistar o que deseja. Enterre tudo perto de uma cerca ou muro.

Essa simpatia para Santo Antônio precisa ser feita no dia de sua comemoração para que tenha maior eficiência.

3- Simpatia para se casar com o namorado

Quando o desejo é casar, ficamos ansiosas durante todo o relacionamento do namoro e um pouco desesperadas pelo casamento, e apesar de já terem falado isso e ter vontade de dar esse grande passo na relação, o seu namorado ainda não faz logo o pedido. Mas se você quer agilizar esse processo, pegue um lenço seu e consiga outro dele para fazer esta simpatia para Santo Antônio.

Ele deve te dar o lenço, aproveite para limpar os lábios dele com o pano. Depois guarde-o com seu lenço atado por um nó bem forte, e coloque eles no meio dos seus objetos pessoais. Você precisará ficar 3 dias sem ver seu namorado. Depois deste tempo desfaça o nó nos lenços e morda as quatro pontas do dele. Devolva o lenço para ele assim que o encontrar e deixe o seu aos pés de Santo Antônio na Igreja.

Leia também:

Esotérica ensina uma simpatia com vinho


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Simpatia de Santo Antônio Infalível

Aprenda a simpatia de Santo Antônio infalível

O mês de junho trás esse ar de romance no ar devido ao dia dos namorados, e as vezes quando nos damos conta disso bate aquela tristeza por não ter encontrado alguém ainda e um leve medo de nunca ter esse alguém. Só que não precisa ser assim, a simpatia de Santo é infalível e vai te ajudar.

O mês de junho é o mês de Santo Antônio, o santo conhecido por ajudar os solteiros a encontrar o seu parceiro ideal, aquele que dá uma força nas questões amorosas. Com isso selecionamos algumas simpatias infalíveis feitas para o santo que vão te ajudar a encontrar o amor da sua vida.

Conheça as três simpatias de Santo Antônio infalíveis

Simpatia de Santo Antônio infalível para encontrar a tua alma gêmea

Depois de esquecer o ex você já pode viver uma vida livre maravilhosa, mas não quer cometer o mesmo erro do passado e perder tanto tempo com alguém que no fim não vai dar em nada. Por isso você procura sua alma gêmea. Para isso existe essa simpatia simples.

Comece colocando a imagem do Santo Antônio debaixo de sua cama durante três noites seguidas e antes de dormir imagine seu corpo rodeado por uma luz rosada. Na manhã do quarto dia prepare um banho de casca de maçã com uma colherada de mel e deste modo conhecerá rapidamente uma pessoa muito especial.

Simpatia de Santo Antônio infalível para começar o namoro

Vocês já saíram, já estão há um tempo juntos, mas começa a achar que ele está demorando muito para tornar toda essa relação em algo sério. Para isso existe a simpatia que fará com que você comece a namorar, mas para isso precisa de uma rosa e do seu perfume que o parceiro gosta.

É bem simples, você vai tirar os espinhos da rosa e colocá-la dentro do perfurme. Depois disso, rezará para o Santo Antônio para que ele tire todos os obstáculos do caminho do casal. A partir daí, passe a usar este perfume toda vez que for encontrá-lo e logo mais este relacionamento se fortalecerá.

Simpatia de Santo Antônio infalível para casar com quem deseja

Maio foi o mês das noivas e você, mais uma vez, não ficou comprometida e está cansada de esperar, não é? Então aqui tem uma simpatia infalível para Santo Antônio que lhe trará o casamento de forma rápida. Para isso você precisará de uma folha de pape A4 branco, um prato, uma vela, uma caneta, mel, uma rosa branca e uma oração do santo casamenteiro.

Para começar pegue a folha de papel e coloque ela sobre o prato. Desenho no papel um coração do tamanho do fundo do prato, recorte o desejo e escreva nas três primeiras linhas o nome do amado, em seguida escreva seu nome em outras três linhas. Depois coloque mel e algumas pétalas da rosa sobre o papel sem tirá-lo do prato. Por fim acenda a vela branca bem no meio do prato e queime-a até o final. Assim que a vela acabar, firme o pensamento no homem desejado e reze a Oração de Santo Antônio. Guarde o prato por mais sete dias e depois lave as pétalas e leve até a igreja do Santo e o prato com o coração deve ser deixado em algum jardim bem cultivado como sua relação.

Leia também:

Aprenda o banho para atrair amor


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Veja alguns filmes sobre paranormalidade e conheça mais sobre o assunto

Poder Paranormal - Filmes sobre paranormalidade

Nós já falamos um pouco sobre eventos paranormais e sobre como eles estão presentes em diversas áreas da sociedade. Para exemplificar melhor, fizemos uma lista com algumas obras, umas mais assustadores e outras mais românticas, para você conhecer mais sobre o assunto.

Filmes sobre paranormalidade - Atividade Paranormal

Lançado em 2007 como um pseudo documentário, conta a história de um casal que vive em um sobrado em que os dois imaginam ser assombrado por um espírito. Para descobrir o que está acontecendo, instalam uma câmera em seu quarto, que capta comportamentos estranhos da mulher, assim como objetos que se movem. Cheio de suspense, este filme de terror fez tanto sucesso que virou uma franquia, com 5 filmes no total.

Filmes sobre paranormalidade - Carrie, a estranha

Primeiro foi lançado em 1976 e depois, em uma versão nova, em 2002. Baseado no livro de Stephen King, traz a história de uma menina que vive com a mãe, super religiosa, e descobre que tem o poder de mover as coisas com a mente, chamado Telecinese. A mãe não aceita seu dom e a castiga sempre que ela o usa ou tenta ter uma vida normal. Na escola, a menina sofre bullyng de todos até que cai em uma armadilha para ser humilhada em sua formatura. O que ela faz depois é para ser visto, e não contado!

Filmes sobre paranormalidade - Premonição

Alex é um estudante que de repente começa a ter pressentimentos de coisas horríveis que vão acontecer com as pessoas que ama. Acidente de avião, e outras mortes passam a rodeá-lo e ele tenta descobrir o que está acontecendo e por que ele fica tendo esses pressentimentos. Lançado em 2002, é um thriller de sucesso no mundo inteiro, virando uma franquia.

Agora vamos falar de alguns filmes um pouco mais leves e divertidos, mas que também abordam o tema da paranormalidade:

Filmes sobre paranormalidade - Matilda

Lançado em 1996 conta a história de uma menina muito inteligente, com o dom da Telecinese, mas que sofre em uma família que não a entende e em uma escola com uma diretora intragável e cruel. Graças a ajuda de seus poderes e de sua professora, ela consegue se livrar de situações desagradáveis e encontra o poder da amizade. É um filme fofo para toda a família!

Filmes sobre paranormalidade - Ghost

Romance de 1990 que encantou o mundo inteiro! Sam e Molly vivem um romance feliz até que ele é assassinado. Enquanto vive o luto, Molly descobre que o espírito de seu parceiro continua presente e os dois passam a se relacionar, enquanto ele tenta descobrir quem o matou. Um romance de fazer qualquer um chorar e se emocionar!

Filmes sobre paranormalidade - Chico Xavier, o filme

Lançado em 2010, traz a história do médium mais popular do Brasil. Acompanhamos sua infância, seus primeiros contatos com os espíritos e o começo de seu trabalho, assim como o preconceito que enfrentou da igreja em sua cidade.

Filmes sobre paranormalidade - Magia ao Luar

Dirigido por Woody Allen e lançado em 2014, conta a história de um mágico que é contratado para desmascarar uma médiun que as pessoas acreditam ser uma charlatã. Uma comédia romântica cheia de charme e graça, bem a cara do diretor.

Agora é só escolher por qual começar e entrar de cabeça no universo da paranormalidade!

Leia também:

Veja como funciona o trabalho de um vidente online


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Turkey objected to the inclusion of Mount Ararat located on Turkish territory on Armenian’s...

Turkey objected to the inclusion of Mount Ararat located on Turkish territory on Armenian’s Soviet coat of arms. To which Nikita Khrushchev replied “Why do you have a moon depicted on your flag? After all, the moon doesn’t belong to Turkey.”

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Wow! These 5 breakthroughs changed everything.

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How The Brain Avoids Blurry Vision Thank goodness for...



How The Brain Avoids Blurry Vision

Thank goodness for autostabilization, the digital camera feature that compensates for movement to achieve that crystal-clear, spontaneous selfie. But even more importantly in daily life, our eyes have an ancient form of autostabilization that prevents the world from blurring by. Skinny nerve cells called axons connecting the eye and the brain trigger tiny eye movements that stabilize our field of vision.

For the first time, scientists have identified the molecules that make sure these axons are wired to the exact regions of the brain. The findings could help us understand eye movement disorders and could one day help regenerate damaged nerve cells to restore sight.

Two complementary studies published recently in Neuron focused on nerve cells that correct for slow movements in specific directions: One paper focused on the horizontal direction and the other on the vertical direction.

Anytime you walk through space, images in your field of vision move across your eye, said Andrew Huberman, assistant professor of neuroscience at University of California, San Diego and co-author of both studies. Unlike the blurry images that result from taking a picture on your cellphone, your brain compensates by moving the eye to offset this visual slip, he says.

“It’s a corrective eye movement—[you] move forward, [your eyes] drift back, move forward, drift back, move forward, drift back—so that as you move through space, you fixate on something in front of you as you move forward.”

The brain generates eye movement after detecting light. Light waves zip through the air, bounce off objects and ricochet straight into our eyeballs. Eventually they hit a thin membrane at the back of the eye called the retina. The retina has millions of cells called photoreceptors that convert light into electric messages.

Special nerve cells, called retina ganglion cells (RGCs), deliver the messages from the retina down their long, skinny axons to the visual centers of the brain. In humans, millions of these axons are bundled up as the optic nerve before branching out to their neural destinations. The brain interprets the electric pulses as an image and voilà! We can see.  

Different categories of RGCs are tuned to specific features of a scene, such as color or movement. The researchers studied a small category of motion detecting RGCs that help our eyes compensate for slow movements in the vertical and horizontal directions, said Alex Kolodkin, professor of neuroscience at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and senior author of one of studies. “You can be on a Ferris wheel and in this case, the visual field is moving up and down and you’re essentially stabilizing the image in the vertical direction.”

Scientists have understood where the RGC axons connect in the brain but we know very little about how the axons target these areas during embryonic development, said Kolodkin.

To figure this out, the researchers experimented with mice engineered with genes that make glowing, green proteins on the vertical and horizontal RGCs. This allowed the researchers to trace the neurons’ pathway to the brain, said David Feldheim, professor of molecular, cell and developmental biology at the University of California, Santa Cruz. He was not part of the study.

The researchers identified the protein types that guide the RGCs to the exact brain location. Then, the scientists developed mice that lacked these essential proteins. Kolodkin’s lab tracked the eye movements of the mice as they watched lines move slowly vertically and found they were not able to make the correct adjustments. Huberman’s lab found the same, but by testing mice without the proteins specific to making the connections to track horizontal movements.

This is the first study that described the molecules responsible for guiding the axons from the retina through the maze of neurons to the exact brain location, said Feldheim.

The scientists hope their findings will help the treatment of eye disorders resulting from nerve cells wiring to the wrong brain region.

“You could imagine a scenario whereby someone has an injured visual system and they’re losing visual function and becoming blind,” said Huberman. “Future gene therapy could deliver the specific genes to rewire and stimulate the growth of [RGCs] to the correct location.”

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Saber esperar

Saber esperar é uma virtude ...Visite-nos: http://ift.tt/1I23gTE

Posted by Mensagens da Manhã on Quarta, 22 de outubro de 2014
Saber esperar é uma virtude! Aceitar, sem questionar, que cada coisa tem um tempo certo para acontecer ... Compartilhe com os amigos no Facebook.
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todaysdocument: Astronaut Ed White’s Space Walk on Gemini IV,...


Gemini IV Mission Image - EVA, northeast of Hawaii. National Archives Identifier: 5804876


Photograph 2 of Astronaut Edward H. White II's Space Walk on Gemini IV. National Archives ID 4728366


astronaut Edward H. White II's space walk (Extra Vehicular Activity) on Gemini IV. National Archives Identifier: 4728367


astronaut Edward H. White II's space walk (Extra Vehicular Activity) on Gemini IV. National Archives Identifier: 4728368


Gemini IV Mission Image - EVA,off coast of California. National Archives Identifier: 5804872


Gemini IV Mission Image - EVA over Gulf of Mexico. National Archives Identifier: 5804874

todaysdocument:

Astronaut Ed White’s Space Walk on Gemini IV, 6/03/1965

During NASA’s Gemini IV mission, Astronaut Edward White II performed the first spacewalk, or Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA), by an American fifty years ago on June 3, 1965. 

Gemini IV Mission Image - EVA, off coast of California (photo #5 above):

Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot for the Gemini-Titan 4 space flight,floats in zero gravity of space off the coast of California. The extravehicular activity was performed during the third revolution of the Gemini 4 spacecraft. White is attached to the spacecraft by a 25-ft. umbilical line and a 23-ft. tether line,both wrapped in gold tape to form one cord. In his right hand White carries a Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU). The visor of his helmet is gold plated to protect him from the unfiltered rays of the sun. Photo was taken on June 3,1965. G.E.T. time was 4:37 / GMT time was 19:49. Original magazine number was GEM04-16-30427, taken with a Hasselblad camera and a 70mm lens. Film type was Kodak Ektachrome MS (S.O. -217).
National Archives Identifier: 5804872

File unit:  Gemini IV. Series:  Photographs of the Mercury and Gemini Space Programs, 12/1960 - 2/1997. Records of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

From the National Archives Catalog:

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ucsdhealthsciences: Burn, Baby, LearnSunburn season is upon us,...



ucsdhealthsciences:

Burn, Baby, Learn
Sunburn season is upon us, with cancer to follow

Melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer, caused by unrepaired damage to DNA in skin cells from ultraviolet radiation. It is often the latent result of long-forgotten childhood sunburns.

The American Cancer Society estimates there are more than 135,000 new cases of melanoma in the U.S. each year. Recognized and treated early, the disease is almost always curable. Later on, it’s much harder: almost 10,000 Americans die from melanoma annually.

Spotting melanoma isn’t hard. Here are the ABCDEs:

  • Asymmetry: Look for moles that are irregularly shaped.
  • Border: A benign mole has smooth, even borders; a cancerous mole has edges that may be notched or scalloped.
  • Color: Benign moles are all one color, usually a shade of brown. Malignant moles are variegated, sometimes red, white or blue.
  • Diameter: Malignant moles tend to be the size of pencil eraser or larger in diameter, though they can be much smaller if detected early.
  • Evolving: Cancer is all about constant growth and change, and a malignant mole changes over time – in size, shape, elevation and other traits, such as starting to itch or crust.

The high-powered microscopic image above, by Norman Barker at The Johns Hopkins University and Christine Iacobuzio-Donahue at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center depicts stained melanoma tissue. The large round structure in the center of the image is a cross-section of a hair follicle that is surrounded by the melanoma cells (brown).

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NASA Celebrates 50 Years of Spacewalking


For 50 years, NASA has been "suiting up" for spacewalking. In this Feb. 7, 1984 photograph of the first untethered spacewalk, NASA astronaut Bruce McCandless is in the midst of the first "field" tryout of a nitrogen-propelled backpack device called the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU).

from NASA http://ift.tt/1K9NJRo
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The famous Tienanmen Square photo, captured by another...



The famous Tienanmen Square photo, captured by another photographer

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▶ Cancer Prevention Recommendations -...



▶ Cancer Prevention Recommendations - YouTube

World Cancer Research Fund International is the world’s leading authority on cancer prevention research related to diet, weight and physical activity. To view the full details of our Cancer Prevention Recommendations, please visit our website: http://ift.tt/1IciuTm

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June 3rd 1808: Jefferson Davis born On this day in 1808, the...


Jefferson Davis (1808 - 1889)


Davis's inauguration - February 1861

June 3rd 1808: Jefferson Davis born

On this day in 1808, the future President of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis, was born in Fairview, Kentucky. Davis spent much of his youth at the family cotton plantations in Mississippi and Louisiana, which contributed to his ardent support of slavery. He graduated from the West Point military academy (though not without causing trouble - being implicated in the 1826 Eggnog Riot) and entered the army, during which time he fought in the Mexican-American War. Davis entered politics in 1845, and worked his way up to Senator for Mississippi and US Secretary of War under President Franklin Pierce. While initially voting against secession at the outbreak of the American Civil War, Davis went with his state and supported the Confederacy. In 1861, at the start of the war, he was elected president of the Confederate States of America unopposed, having been sworn in as provisional president that February. Davis served as President until the demise of the Confederacy as the seceded states prepared to rejoin the Union after the North’s victory in the Civil War. Despite his success at keeping the Confederate war effort going for longer than was initially expected, he is generally considered ineffective compared to the Union President Abraham Lincoln. Davis failed to secure international support for the Confederacy, and caused rampant inflation when his administration printed money to cover the war costs, which led to violent protests in Richmond. Davis was imprisoned after the war but was never tried and was released after two years, being pardoned by President Andrew Johnson in December 1868. Davis died in 1889 aged 81, after having popularised the ‘Lost Cause’ interpretation of the war which praised pre-war Southern society, and condemned the following period of Reconstruction.

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TODAY IN THE HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGYVia:...



TODAY IN THE HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY

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