31 maio 2015



Via: http://ift.tt/1eWNk1f

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Supernova 1994D and the Unexpected Universe

Long ago, far away, a star exploded. Supernova 1994D, visible as the bright spot on the lower left, occurred in the outskirts of disk galaxy NGC 4526. Supernova 1994D was not of interest for how different it was, but rather for how similar it was to other supernovae. In fact, the light emitted during the weeks after its explosion caused it to be given the familiar designation of a Type Ia supernova. If all Type 1a supernovae have the same intrinsic brightness, then the dimmer a supernova appears, the farther away it must be. By calibrating a precise brightness-distance relation, astronomers are able to estimate not only the expansion rate of the universe (parameterized by the Hubble Constant), but also the geometry of the universe we live in (parameterized by Omega and Lambda). The large number and great distances to supernovae measured over the past few years, when combined with other observations, are interpreted as indicating that we live in a previously unexpected universe.

from NASA http://ift.tt/1FLWxty
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Word of the Day: quiddle

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dawn over over the great lakes, photographed by goes-15, may...

dawn over over the great lakes, photographed by goes-15, may 2015.

looking over the midwest, across the great lakes, and into eastern canada. in the top image, you can see morning sunlight glancing off lakes in quebec.

both gifs show 10 images, one taken at the same time each day, 22nd-31st may. top: 1000 utc (5am central daylight time). bottom: 1100 utc (6am cdt).

image credit: noaa/nasa. animation: ageofdestruction.

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This filmmaker argues, in short, that in 1969 NASA had the...

This filmmaker argues, in short, that in 1969 NASA had the technology to land on the moon but not to fake the moon landing

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Hallucinations And Delusions Are Surprisingly Common Ever heard...

Hallucinations And Delusions Are Surprisingly Common

Ever heard a voice inside your head or saw something that wasn’t there? You’re not alone — and it doesn’t necessarily mean there’s something wrong with you. A study of more than 30,000 people from 18 countries found that about one in 20 of us have experienced a psychotic episode at least once.

The long-term study challenges the assumption that only people with psychosis experience hallucinations and delusions, though the causes and implications of these episodes remain largely unknown. The study was led by Professor John McGrath, a psychologist from Australia’s Queensland Brain Institute. The results of his team’s work can now be found at JAMA Psychiatry.

“When I trained in psychiatry we were told that if you heard voices, you may have had schizophrenia and that the two were very tightly linked,” McGrath told ABC Science. “But it turns out that when you interview people in the community and ask them if they’ve ever heard voices, they’ll say ‘yes, I have had that experience before’. That’s a really important clue as to which part of the brain may be going wrong — that the circuits in the brain that underline language, hearing and speaking are tending to misfire.”

A psychotic episode (PE) is when an individual experiences a temporary break from reality. It typically involves seeing, hearing, and believing things that aren’t real. The National Alliance on Mental Illness offers some examples of hallucinations and delusions:

  • Voices telling you to commit acts of violence or self-harm.
  • Feeling like something is crawling under your skin.
  • Seeing someone take the shape of something [they are] not, such as a demon.
  • Believing external forces are controlling your thoughts, feelings and behavior.
  • Believing that trivial remarks, events or objects have personal meaning or significance.
  • Thinking you have special powers, are on a special mission or even that you are God.

It’s important to note that psychosis is not an illness unto itself, but a symptom; a PE can be the result of a mental or physical illness, substance use, trauma, extreme stress, or other factors.

After surveying 31,261 “mostly high-functioning” people, i.e. a random sampling of individuals from 18 different countries, the researchers found that the lifetime prevalence of ever having a PE is 5.8%, so they’re typically rare. Of those who experience a PE, about one-third (32.2%) only experience them once over the course of their life. About another third (31.8%) reported experiencing between two to five episodes during their life. The researchers also found that hallucinations are much more common than delusions (5.2% vs. 1.3% respectively).

The researchers conclude by saying:

The epidemiologic features of PEs are more nuanced than previously thought. Research is needed that focuses on similarities and differences in the predictors of the onset, course, and consequences of distinct PEs.

Indeed, this research should motivate psychologists to acquire a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved. Moreover, it should influence them to change the way they view psychosis and how they make their clinical diagnoses.

As McGrath told ABC Science: “We need to equip the community to understand that it’s OK to talk about your depression, you should seek help if you hear voices, or you should seek help if you’re suicidal because these are things that we can help you with. I think as a community we need to be more aware of that — these are everyday things that are happening to everyday people.”


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May 31st 1962: Eichmann hangedOn this day in 1962, the fugitive...

Adolf Eichmann (1906 - 1962)

Eichmann's false Red Cross identity records he used to enter Argentina as 'Ricardo Klement' in 1950

May 31st 1962: Eichmann hanged

On this day in 1962, the fugitive Nazi officer Adolf Eichmann was executed in Israel. During the Nazi rule of Germany, Eichmann was one of Chancellor Adolf Hitler’s top men in the paramilitary organisation the SS, charged with overseeing the deportation of Jews to extermination camps. For this role, and his prominent participation in the 1942 Wannsee Conference that planned the ‘Final Solution to the Jewish Problem’, he is considered one of the chief architects of the Holocaust. After the fall of the Third Reich with Germany’s defeat in the Second World War and Adolf Hitler’s suicide in 1945, top Nazi officials faced charges of war crimes. Many were captured, and either committed suicide rather than face trial (like SS leader Heinrich Himmler), were executed after the Nuremberg Trials (like Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop), or were sent to prison (like Deputy Führer Rudolf Hess). Eichmann, however, fled first to Austria and then to Argentina in 1950, where he lived until he was captured by Israeli intelligence services. Eichmann was subsequently put on trial in Jerusalem for war crimes, found guilty, and was executed by hanging in 1962.

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For anybody who likes a bit of word play!

For anybody who likes a bit of word play!

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bbcnewsus: For years Russia has remained remarkably silent on...


For years Russia has remained remarkably silent on the challenge it faces from HIV and Aids. Now that silence has been broken by an epidemiologist who has been working in the field for more than two decades - and he calls the situation “a national catastrophe”.

Vadim Pokrovsky, the softly spoken head of the Federal Aids Centre in Moscow, has watched as the figures have climbed remorselessly upwards.

There are about one million people living with HIV today in Russia and year on year the rate of infection is rising, unlike sub-Saharan Africa where the rate of increase is slowing. This is according to Russia’s official figures, which almost everyone agrees are a substantial underestimate of the true position.

Fighting HIV where no-one admits its a problem

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The dark side of the 'love hormone'; research points to striking similarities with the effects of alcohol

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Every significant government appointee in the Chinese...

Every significant government appointee in the Chinese bureaucracy, for almost one thousand years, would start out their assignment with a packet that included a map of their jurisdiction. This map, one of many gazetters, included census data, trade and tax data, and local social behavior. An army of cartographers were employed to constantly update the gazettes. Not only did the gazetteers provide the government with reliable information on a sprawling empire; they also stirred local pride by highlighting each prefecture’s social and cultural achievements. This particular one is of Ning-hai County, circa 1200s

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blondebombshellescort: yearofwomen: MAY 21 - NICOLE TICEAAt...




At just fifteen years old, Vancouver high school student Nicole Ticea developed an early-stage HIV test that’s as easy to use as an over-the-counter pregnancy test. Unlike current rapid response tests which rely on testing antibodies, Ticea utilized a technique known as isothermic nucleic acid amplification, making it possible to detect the virus as early as one week after infection. The disposable device does not rely on electricity, provides results in under one hour and should cost less than $5.00 to produce.

“Nicole’s work really made me realize what a big difference a fast easy-to-administer test for early stage HIV infection could make in prolonging, if not saving, thousands of lives in developing countries,” said Gursev Anmole, the graduate student mentor who assisted Nicole on her research at Simon Fraser University.

Ticea was recently awarded the 2015 Intel Foundation Young Scientist Award for her groundbreaking work. After starting her own company, she received a $100,000 grant to continue developing this technology in the hopes of bringing it to low-income communities in need.

This is amazing!

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CLICK HERE —> http://bit.ly/10PsychMemes to see more brilliant psych memes!

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