18 junho 2015

TODAY IN THE HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGYVia:...



TODAY IN THE HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY

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M64: The Black Eye Galaxy


This big, bright, beautiful spiral galaxy is Messier 64, often called the Black Eye Galaxy or the Sleeping Beauty Galaxy for its heavy-lidded appearance in telescopic views. M64 is about 17 million light-years distant in the otherwise well-groomed northern constellation Coma Berenices. In fact, the Red Eye Galaxy might also be an appropriate moniker in this colorful composition. The enormous dust clouds obscuring the near-side of M64's central region are laced with the telltale reddish glow of hydrogen associated with star forming regions. But they are not this galaxy's only peculiar feature. Observations show that M64 is actually composed of two concentric, counter-rotating systems. While all the stars in M64 rotate in the same direction as the interstellar gas in the galaxy's central region, gas in the outer regions, extending to about 40,000 light-years, rotates in the opposite direction. The dusty eye and bizarre rotation is likely the result of a billion year old merger of two different galaxies.

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Redrawing the brain’s motor map Neuroscientists at...



Redrawing the brain’s motor map

Neuroscientists at Emory have refined a map showing which parts of the brain are activated during head rotation, resolving a decades-old puzzle. Their findings may help in the study of movement disorders affecting the head and neck, such as cervical dystonia and head tremor.

The results were published in Journal of Neuroscience.

In landmark experiments published in the 1940s and 50s, Canadian neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield and colleagues determined which parts of the motor cortex controlled the movements of which parts of the body.

Penfield stimulated the brain with electricity in patients undergoing epilepsy surgery, and used the results to draw a “motor homunculus”: a distorted representation of the human body within the brain. Penfield assigned control of the neck muscles to a region between those that control the fingers and face, a finding inconsistent with some studies that came later.

Using modern functional MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), researchers at Emory University School of Medicine have shown that the neck’s motor control region in the brain is actually between the shoulders and trunk, a location that more closely matches the arrangement of the body itself.

“We can’t be that hard on Penfield, because the number of cases where he was able to study head movement was quite limited, and studying head motion as he did, by applying an electrode directly to the brain, creates some challenges,” says lead author Buz Jinnah, MD, professor of neurology, human genetics and pediatrics at Emory University School of Medicine.

The new location for the neck muscles makes more sense, because it corresponds to a similar map Penfield established of the sense of touch (the somatosensory cortex), Jinnah says.

Participants in brain imaging studies need to keep their heads still to provide accurate data, so volunteers were asked to perform isometric muscle contraction. They attempted to rotate their heads to the left or the right, even though head movement was restricted by foam padding and restraining straps.

First author Cecilia Prudente, a graduate student in neuroscience who is now a postdoctoral associate at the University of Minnesota, developed the isometric head movement task and obtained internal funding that allowed the study to proceed.

She and Jinnah knew that isometric exercises for the wrist activated the same regions of the motor cortex as wrist movements, and used that as a reference point in their study. During brain imaging, they were able to check that particular muscles were being tensed by directly monitoring volunteers’ muscles electronically.

When volunteers contracted their neck muscles, researchers were able to detect activation in other parts of the brain too, such as the cerebellum and the basal ganglia, which are known to be involved in movement control. This comes as no surprise, Jinnah says, since these regions also control movements of the hands and other body parts.

Prudente, Jinnah and colleagues have conducted a similar study with cervical dystonia patients, with the goal of comparing the patterns of brain activation between healthy volunteers and the patients. Cervical dystonia is a painful condition in which the neck muscles contract involuntarily and the head posture is distorted.

“These results may help guide future studies in humans and animals, as well as medical or surgical interventions for cervical dystonia and other disorders involving abnormal head movements,” Prudente says.

Image: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, Emory researchers have shown that the neck’s motor control region in the brain is between the shoulders and trunk (red arrow), a finding that resolves a puzzle dating from Penfield’s landmark investigations in the 1940s and 1950s.The results are expected to help in the study of cervical dystonia. Image courtesy of Journal of Neuroscience.

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UK woman can ride bike for first time with...







UK woman can ride bike for first time with ‘world’s most lifelike bionic hand’

A British woman, Nicky Ashwell, has recently been fitted with what scientists claim to be the most life-like bionic hand to date.

Following the procedure, performed at the private London Prosthetics Centre, the 29 year old Ashwell, who was born without a right hand, is now able to carry out tasks she was never able to before, such as ride a bike or use cutlery – simple, everyday actions most people never even stop to think about.

The prosthetic limb, which weighs about the same as a bar of chocolate (around 390 g) and is made from aerograde aluminium and rare Earth magnets, was developed by a company called Steeper that had built it around an accurate skeletal structure with small proportions designed to fit teenagers and women.

Steeper claims its prosthetic hand, which uses military and Formula 1 technology, is a veritable breakthrough in replacement bionic limbs, delivering “unrivalled level of precision and natural movements”, made possible by as many as 14 different precision grips.

That’s thanks to the 337 discrete mechanical parts that allow the prosthetic to function in a natural and realistic way.

“We leaned on a number of different industries to make the BeBionic hand. The knuckle mechanisms were created using a cutting technique used on F1 car chassis. And some of the tiny motors that drive the fingers and thumb are used on missiles,” said Ted Varley, the company’s Technical Director.

Excited about her new hand, Ashwell, who’s a Product Manager at an online fashion forecasting and trend service, said:

“When I first tried the BeBionic small hand it was an exciting and strange feeling – it immediately opened up so many more possibilities for me. I realized that I had been making life challenging for myself when I didn’t need to.

The movements now come easily and look natural – I keep finding myself being surprised by the little things, like being able to carry my purse while holding my boyfriend’s hand. I’ve also been able to do things never before possible like riding a bike and lifting weights.”

The hand can withstand up to 45 kg in weight and is precise enough to hold a wine glass without breaking it.

“The stem of a wine glass is an example of something bionic hands could not hold before. Now the skeletal structure means that the hand wraps around that and things like soft fruit,“ said Varley.

To develop the line of “robo-hands” that the BeBionic belongs to, Steeper – a well-known British prosthetic limb manufacturer that‘s been in business since the First World War – spent 7 years in research, development and manufacturing. This latest model took around 1 million pounds, 18 months and 25 designers to make.

In terms of the production process, in order to maintain anatomical accuracy, the first element to be developed was the skeletal structure, which was then equipped with the intricate electronics. “In other myoelectric hands the technology is developed first, at the expense of the life-likeness.”

The BeBionic uses sensors triggered by Ashwell’s muscle movements to activate motion. Movements are then coordinated by powerful microprocessors and individual motors in each finger.

Rather unsurprisingly, precision-made, multi-joint robotic limbs like this are very expensive and may cost up to 10.000 pounds for a hand or an almost astronomically-steep 100.000 pounds for a full arm.

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Oração da Noite

Oração da Noite I

Querido Deus, aqui estou,
o dia terminou,
quero orar, agradecer.
O meu amor eu Te ofereço.
Te agradeço, meu Deus,
por tudo o que Tu,
meu Senhor, me deste.
Guarda-me a mim,
ao meu irmão,
ao meu pai e à minha mãe.
Muito obrigado, meu Deus,
por tudo quanto me deste,
dás e darás. Amém

Em teu Nome, Senhor, descansarei tranquilo.
Assim seja !

 



Oração da Noite 2


Meu Pai,
agora que as vozes silenciaram
e os clamores se apagaram,
aqui ao pé da cama
minha alma se eleva a Ti, para dizer:
Creio em Ti, espero em Ti,
e amo-Te com todas as minhas forças,
glória a Ti, Senhor!
Deposito nas tuas mãos a fadiga e a luta,
as alegrias e desencantos
deste dia que ficou para trás.
Se os nervos me traíram,
se os impulsos egoístas me dominaram
se dei lugar ao rancor ou à tristeza,
perdão, Senhor!
Tem piedade de mim.
Se fui infiel,
se pronunciei palavras em vão,
se me deixei levar pela impaciência,
se fui um espinho para alguém,
perdão Senhor!
Nesta noite
não quero entregar-me ao sono
sem sentir na minha alma
a segurança da tua misericórdia,
a tua doce misericórdia
inteiramente gratuita.
Senhor! Eu Te agradeço, meu Pai,
porque foste a sombra fresca
que me cobriu durante todo este dia.
Eu Te agradeço porque,
invisível, carinhoso e envolvente,
cuidaste de mim como uma mãe,
em todas essas horas.
Senhor! Ao redor de mim
tudo já é silêncio e calma.
Envia o anjo da paz a esta casa.
Relaxa meus nervos,
sossega o meu espírito,
solta as minhas tensões,
inunda meu ser de silêncio e de serenidade.
Vela por mim, Pai querido,
enquanto eu me entrego confiante ao sono,
como uma criança
que dorme feliz em teus braços.
Em teu Nome, Senhor, descansarei tranquilo.
Assim seja!
Amém!


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snonny-plss: thatgeekyclaw: nowyoukno is sorta like the Snapple of Tumblr. you mean delicious...

snonny-plss: thatgeekyclaw: nowyoukno is sorta like the Snapple of Tumblr. you mean delicious...
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i-m-a-weird-person: nowyoukno: Female Excellence! For more...





















i-m-a-weird-person:

nowyoukno:

Female Excellence! For more facts follow NowYouKno

NO BUT FOR REAL THE NIGHT WITCHES WERE FLYING IN BIPLANES. BIPLANES. YOU KNOW, THE SHITTY AIRPLANES MADE OF WOOD AND PAPER, FRAGILE AS MEN’S ENTITLEMENT TO MAKE WAR WITH THE “REALPLANES” ? YEAH, THOSE ONES.

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kartelnometry: tommit99: nowyoukno: Click HERE to sign...

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solar flare on the surface of the sun, photographed by sdo, 5th...





solar flare on the surface of the sun, photographed by sdo, 5th & 6th of may, 2015.

24 frames over 12 hours; each frame shows the difference between images taken in 2 different wavelengths. another look at the same event.

image credit: nasa/sdo, aia/eve/hmi. animation: ageofdestruction.

age
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Source for more facts follow NowYouKno



Source for more facts follow NowYouKno

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for-all-mankind: With the days rapidly dwindling until New...



















for-all-mankind:

With the days rapidly dwindling until New Horizons makes humanity’s first reconnaissance of Pluto, a stunning new video was released showing the mission’s planetary predecessors.

Paying homage to over 50 years of planetary exploration, the National Space Society’s video shows the groundbreaking missions which opened up the solar system to all of us back here on Earth.

Through the Pioneer, Mariner, and Voyager missions, the worlds of the solar system were no longer mysterious to scientists and astronomers on Earth. The years of the planet’s first reconnaissance and spacecraft are shown in a fitting tribute to New Horizon’s foundations.

Now, 53 years after our initial visits to other worlds, our exploration of the solar system’s major celestial bodies draws to a close. We’ve spent half a century broadening our cosmic horizons; what new horizons will be found at, and beyond, Pluto?

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During the Paraguayan War (1864-1870), the contents of the Paraguayan National Archives were taken...

During the Paraguayan War (1864-1870), the contents of the Paraguayan National Archives were taken to Brazil’s national library in Rio de Janeiro. Paraguay’s documents have been kept there ever since, unavailable to scholars for research or Paraguayans for … their history.

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Source for more facts follow NowYouKno



Source for more facts follow NowYouKno

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Source for more useful info follow NowYouKno



Source for more useful info follow NowYouKno

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Source for more facts follow NowYouKno



Source for more facts follow NowYouKno

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hiphopmusicblog: umdavidlee: urbanurkel: prettyboyshyflizzy: ...

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Orange Is The New Black Facts - Source for more follow NowYouKno





















Orange Is The New Black Facts - Source for more follow NowYouKno

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(From CDC)



(From CDC)

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Through the Clouds


On June 18, 1983, Sally Ride became the first American woman to fly in space when the space shuttle Challenger launched on mission STS-7 from Pad 39A, Kennedy Space Center. One of her jobs was to call out "Roll program" seven seconds after launch. "I'll guarantee that those were the hardest words I ever had to get out of my mouth," she said later.

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