28 fevereiro 2015

Moon Venus Mars Skyline



Taken on February 20, five different exposures made in rapid succession were used to created this tantalizing telephoto image. In combination, they reveal a wide range of brightness visible to the eye on that frigid evening, from the urban glow of the Quebec City skyline to the triple conjunction of Moon, Venus and Mars. Shortly after sunset the young Moon shows off its bright crescent next to brilliant Venus. Fainter Mars is near the top of the frame. Though details in the Moon's sunlit crescent are washed out, features on the dark, shadowed part of the lunar disk are remarkably clear. Still lacking city lights the lunar night is illuminated solely by earthshine, light reflected from the sunlit side of planet Earth.



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Gene that makes human brain uniqueA strand of DNA that lies at...





Gene that makes human brain unique


A strand of DNA that lies at the heart of what makes humans unique in the animal kingdom has been identified by researchers in Germany.


Scientists in Dresden found a gene that drives the expansion of the human brain and helps to make it the most complex structure in the universe.


Researchers believe the gene plays a pivotal role in human cognition by ramping up dramatically the number of neurons in the neocortex, a brain region that is central to reasoning, language and sensory perception.


The gene is found in modern humans, but was also carried by neanderthals, who had brains at least as large as ours, and the mysterious Denisovans, a group of human ancestors known only from a few bone fragments in Siberia.


Wieland Huttner, director of the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics in Dresden, who led the research, said the finding came from 25 years of work on the problem. “Our ultimate goal has always been to identify the changes in the genome that were responsible for us humans having larger brains than other primates,” he said.


The human brain has almost tripled in size over the past 7 million years into a 1,300cc organ containing 100bn neurons that consume a whopping fifth of our energy. The most rapid growth occurred in the past 2 million years. Homo erectus walked the Earth 1.8 million years ago with a brain size half that of a modern human’s.


“What we now have is a gene that is characteristic of a 1.3 litre to 1.4 litre brain, and that makes it very exciting,” Huttner said.


Tests on mouse embryos confirmed that the gene can have a profound impact on brain development. Embryos injected with the gene grew larger brain regions and some developed the crinkled brain surface that humans have. The folds allow more brain tissue to fit into the same sized skull.


Huttner’s group is now keen to breed mice that carry the gene into adulthood to see how their brains develop, and crucially to see whether any changes boost their intelligence, memory and learning skills.


“Will they learn better, or have better memories? That’s hard to say. But we should know that later this year,” Huttner told the Guardian. “We saw cortical folding in half of the mice. So the gene is sufficient to do that, but it won’t necessarily do it every time.” The scientists are investigating why the gene does not have the same effects every time.


The gene arose on the human lineage some time after our ancient ancestors and those of chimps split from the same evolutionary path more than 5 million years ago. Known as ARHGAP11B, the gene is a modified version of a far more common DNA strand that is found in organisms from simple yeast to mice.


Marta Florio, a neuroscientist at the Dresden lab, found that the gene was highly active in human brain stem cells that make neurons in the neocortex. Instead of the stem cells maturing and dividing into only two neurons, as happens in some animals, the gene makes the cells multiply and produce far more brain cells.


Florio, the first author of a report on the work in the journal Science, discovered a total of 56 genes that affect stem cells in the brains of primates, about a quarter of which are unique to humans. Some have not been identified before and could have their own major effects on human brain development.


“What is unique about humans is not going to come down to one gene only,” Florio said. “Cognition is a complex thing. We don’t think a single gene makes us smarter than other animals. What we can say is that this is probably a key part of what makes us human.”


But she does not think her lab will make super-intelligent mice any time soon. The ARHGAP11B gene seems to produce more brain cells in the neocortex, but that may not be enough to boost an animal’s intelligence on its own. More likely, Florio says, the brain needs other genes to make those neurons form functional networks in the brain. “You’d predict the mice would have more computational power, but the neurons have to form a network, and I’m sceptical that with one gene you will get that. It’s an exciting possibility, but we should be cautious about that happening.”


Image: Mouse cerebral cortex. Mouse embryos injected with the gene identified by scientist as key to human cognitive faculties grew larger brain regions and some developed the crinkled brain surface that humans have. Credit: Marta Florio and Wieland B. Huttner, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics


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TAROT DO AMOR – SOBRE VOCÊ A RODA DA FORTUNA

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Love this very topical cartoon by Gergely Dudás.Studying...





Love this very topical cartoon by Gergely Dudás.


Studying Psychology? GO HERE —> http://ift.tt/1eWNk1f for free psychology information & resources.


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We investigated The Dress. This is what we found.

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Neurons that help predict what another individual will doEvery...

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Astronaut Salutes Nimoy From Orbit



International Space Station astronaut Terry Virts (@AstroTerry) tweeted this image of a Vulcan hand salute from orbit as a tribute to actor Leonard Nimoy, who died on Friday, Feb. 27, 2015. Nimoy played science officer Mr. Spock in the Star Trek series that served as an inspiration to generations of scientists, engineers and sci-fi fans around the world. Cape Cod and Boston, Massachusetts, Nimoy's home town, are visible through the station window.



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(From CDC)





(From CDC)


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Why Did Dahomey Change Its Name?

Benin used to be named the Republic of Dahomey. That was its name in 1960, when the country gained independence from France. In 1972 there was a coup. The new government aligned itself with Marxist–Leninist ideals. In order to symbolize the revolutionary change, the regime renamed the country to Benin and changed the flag to a red five-pointed star on a green background. The flag didn’t stick, but the name has.


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February 28th 1953: Watson and Crick discover DNA structureOn...



Watson & Crick with their DNA model





Franklin's X-ray image of DNA



February 28th 1953: Watson and Crick discover DNA structure


On this day in 1953, scientists James D. Watson and Francis Crick discovered the chemical structure of DNA. They made the discovery of the double helix structure whilst building a cardboard model of the molecule in their laboratory at Cambridge University. Their model of DNA was based on an X-ray diffraction image taken by Rosalind Franklin and the fact that DNA bases are paired. They first announced their discovery to friends and it was not formally announced to the wider scientific community until April 25th. Watson, Crick and Maurice Wilkins were jointly awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries. The discovery was a groundbreaking moment for science, and lay the foundations for the research into DNA and the investigation of human genetics.



"We have found the secret of life."
- Francis Crick



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caraobrien:Resistance: The MovieAntibiotics were first...





caraobrien:



Resistance: The Movie


Antibiotics were first massed-produced in the 1940s. Their ability to fight and kill bacteria revolutionized medicine and had profound effects on everything from agriculture to war. After less than 80 years, however, these miracle drugs are failing. Resistant infections kill hundreds of thousands of people around the world each year, and there are now dozens of so-called Superbugs each with its own challenges and costs. How did this happen? Using microscopic footage, harrowing personal stories, and expert insights RESISTANCE clarifies the problem of antibiotic resistance, how we got to this point, and what we can do to turn the tide.


Buy a copy here.



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FREE ON KINDLE TODAY!Classic Insights into Life and Human...





FREE ON KINDLE TODAY!


Classic Insights into Life and Human Behavior: (Timeless Psychology Book 2.) See following links.


http://ift.tt/1LV3hrf or http://ift.tt/1EyV5en


If you live outside the USA/UK just type the title or B00KPZJU3I into the Amazon search box.


If you like psychology, you’ll love this collection of classic insights from the golden age of the discipline when the doctrine of inquiry was quite simply, if it’s interesting; study it and then write about it.


In this volume you’ll learn about mind reading, Gestalt psychology, Sigmund Freud, the psychology of football, the power of music and the inspirational Helen Keller.


Written by people who shared an unquenchable curiosity to gain a deeper understanding of human behavior, the timeless psychology series is perfect for psychology enthusiasts looking for something thoroughly engaging to read and ponder.


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27 fevereiro 2015

Long Lovejoy and Little Dumbbell



Buffeted by the solar wind, Comet Lovejoy's crooked ion tail stretches over 3 degrees across this telescopic field of view, recorded on February 20. The starry background includes awesome bluish star Phi Persei below, and pretty planetary nebula M76 just above Lovejoy's long tail. Also known as the Little Dumbbell Nebula, after its brighter cousin M27 the Dumbbell Nebula, M76 is only a Full Moon's width away from the comet's greenish coma. Still shining in northern hemisphere skies, this Comet Lovejoy (C/2014 Q2) is outbound from the inner solar system some 10 light-minutes or 190 million kilometers from Earth. But the Little Dumbbell actually lies over 3 thousand light-years away. Now sweeping steadily north toward the constellation Cassiopeia Comet Lovejoy is fading more slowly than predicted and is still a good target for small telescopes.



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The Mysterious Sanxingdui

In 1986, archaeologists outside of Chengdu, the capital of China’s Sichuan Province, discovered “the ninth wonder of the world,” an amazing find that has rewritten the early history of China. It was an entire new culture, unknown before they excavated the two buried pits full of broken bronze sculptures, elephant tusks, and jades dating back to 1200 BCE. To read more about the Chengdu, and their interesting place in China’s history, read my latest post at historical-nonfiction.com


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February 27th 1933: Reichstag fireOn this day in 1933 the...



The Reichstag ablaze





Communists arrested after the fire





Van der Lubbe (left) at the trial



February 27th 1933: Reichstag fire


On this day in 1933 the Reichstag building in Berlin, which housed the German Parliament, was set on fire. The Nazi government of Adolf Hitler then ordered a thorough hunt to track down the arsonist. The police identified the perpetrator as Marinus van der Lubbe, a Dutch communist; he and four other Communist leaders were arrested for their supposed role in the blaze. The Nazis used the event as evidence of a Communist plot in Germany, and Hitler urged President Hindenburg to pass an emergency decree to counter the Communist threat . This Reichstag Fire Decree gave Hitler considerable powers, and is considered a pivotal moment in Hitler’s consolidation of power into a one-party dictatorship. Van der Lubbe was found guilty and executed by guillotine on January 10th 1934. However, his role has been questioned by historians with some even suggesting he was not responsible and that the fire was ordered by the Nazis themselves.


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Oração para melhorar as finanças

Senhor, que a falta de dinheiro ou seu excesso, não nos seja nunca causa de perturbação, pois não deixais faltar o necessário para os que Vos buscam com sinceridade. Que não nos inquietemos, nos enchamos de ansiedade pelo dia de amanhã, lembrando-nos sempre de que Vós cuidais de nós como um Pai que realmente nos ama. Que vivamos dentro e nunca aquém de nossas possibilidades econômicas (Ecl 4, 9-10), e nunca negligenciemos os que buscam nossa ajuda. Dai-nos um espírito cooperador, um leal e amoroso companheirismo para que nunca nos mostremos desatenciosos ou preguiçosos um para com o outro. Que sempre outorguemos a nossos filhos e às pessoas em geral, exemplos de gratuidade no amor. Diante de nossos conflitos possamos resolvê-los todos pacificamente, em nosso trabalho nos comportemos como cristãos, quer sejamos patrões ou funcionários, e tenhamos sempre como prioridade, nossa família e nossos filhos. Que sejamos verdadeiro cooperadores atenciosos e gentis para que não nos tornemos pesados ao outro, sobrecarregando a quem dizemos amar. Senhor, conheceis as dificuldades pelas quais passamos: ajudai-nos a superar todos nossos problemas para que felizes, possamos ser verdadeiras testemunhas de Vosso santo amor no mundo. Amém.



via @notiun


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aonia terra, mars, photographed by mars express, 10th january...

























aonia terra, mars, photographed by mars express, 10th january 2014.


40 to 52°s, 244 to 246°e, west of icaria planum. the crater partially seen at bottom is porter.


composite of natural light images, but colour balance is not naturalistic.


image credit: esa. composite: ageofdestruction.


age
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How Man And Bear Can Work Together

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In De Rerum Natura (“On the Nature of Things”), the first-century BCE Roman poet...

In De Rerum Natura (“On the Nature of Things”), the first-century BCE Roman poet Lucretius wrote about how living organisms are constantly changing. He was aware of fossilized animals like none that currently exist and wrote that “Nothing remains forever what it was. Everything is on the move. Everything is transformed by nature and forced into new paths. One thing, withered by time, decays and dwindles. Another emerges from ignominy, and waxes strong.” He also noted that many species must have died out in the past. Lucretius seemed to be on the cusp of the theory of evolution.


source: Panati’s Extraordinary Endings of Practically Everything & Everybody


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Do you agree with Erich Fromm?Psychology students, don’t...





Do you agree with Erich Fromm?


Psychology students, don’t forget to visit http://ift.tt/1eWNk1f for free psychology information & resources.


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26 fevereiro 2015

Love and War by Moonlight



Venus, named for the Roman goddess of love, and Mars, the war god's namesake, came together by moonlight in this lovely skyview, recorded on February 20 from Charleston, South Carolina, USA, planet Earth. Made in twilight with a digital camera, the three second time exposure also records earthshine illuminating the otherwise dark surface of the young crescent Moon. Of course, the Moon has moved on from this much anticipated triple conjunction. Venus still shines in the west though as the evening star, third brightest object in Earth's sky, after the Sun and the Moon itself. Seen here within almost a Moon's width of Venus, much fainter Mars approached even closer on the following evening. But Mars has since been moving slowly away from brilliant Venus, though Mars is still visible too in the western twilight.



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rubyfruitjumble:luzazuldelaluna:mathematics-and-butterflies: Hi...





















rubyfruitjumble:



luzazuldelaluna:



mathematics-and-butterflies:



Hi guys! I found this app the other day and I wanted to share it with you. It’s called ‘Forest: Stay focused’ and it really helps me whilst studying.



for yall who need to study



I feel like this will work for me because it’s like punishing yourself in a way that doesn’t really matter lol



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This picture, circa 1860, is the oldest surviving aerial photo...





This picture, circa 1860, is the oldest surviving aerial photo in the world. It is an image of Boston, taken from a hot air balloon, and originally titled “Boston, as the Eagle and the Wild Goose See It.”


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Source for more facts follow NowYouKno Other Banksy paintings in...

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Feb. 26, 1966 Launch of Apollo-Saturn 201



Apollo-Saturn 201 (AS-201), the first Saturn IB launch vehicle developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), lifts off from Cape Canaveral, Florida, at 11:12 a.m. on Feb. 26, 1966. The AS-201 mission was an unmanned suborbital flight to test the Saturn 1B launch vehicle and the Apollo Command and Service Modules. This was the first flight of the S-IB and S-IVB stages, including the first flight test of the liquid-hydrogen/liquid oxygen-propelled J-2 engine in the S-IVB stage. During the thirty-seven minute flight, the vehicle reached an altitude of 303 miles and traveled 5,264 miles downrange. Image Credit: NASA



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What's your strory, señor?

Sorry this is such a late reply! I think you’re asking who I am, so first off I’ll say that it’s actually señorita! I’m a 21 year old undergraduate History student at the University of Sheffield in the UK, and the focus of my studies is American history. I started this blog around three years ago because I love history, and I especially enjoy trying to make it accessible to a wide audience of people. If I could make a career out of this then I wouldn’t say no! My ideal job is something in the public history line of work, so for example museums, documentaries, etc. But really I’m pretty much just your average student, and as much as I love my degree most of the time I’d rather be going on a night out or staying in bed watching Netflix! Guess that’s pretty much my story, thanks for asking!


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Gaetano Donizetti (1797-1848) wrote one of opera’s most famous...





Gaetano Donizetti (1797-1848) wrote one of opera’s most famous insanity scenes in Lucia di Lammermoor (1835), based on Sir Walter Scott’s novel The Bride of Lammermoor. Donizetti himself later went mad due to syphilis and spent the last years of his life in an insane asylum.


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February 26th 1936: Attempted coup in JapanOn this day in 1936,...



Third regiment of the rebels march to their barracks during the coup





Rebel-occupied Sanno Hotel in 1936





Martial law headquarters in Tokyo during the incident



February 26th 1936: Attempted coup in Japan


On this day in 1936, the so-called ‘February 26 Incident’ occurred in Japan. The incident was an attempted coup d’etat in which some Japanese troops took over the capital of Tokyo to express anger at the government. They criticised the government’s supposedly passive foreign policy and lack of respect for the Emperor. It was led by a group of young army radicals, who mustered the support of over one thousand troops in their attack on government buildings in Tokyo. Among the victims of the attempted coup were the Home and Finance ministers, and the rebels were able to hold the Tokyo Police Department building. However the rebels failed to seize the Imperial Palace or assassinate the Prime Minister. Therefore, while the rebellious soldiers had some initial success, their coup was promptly suppressed by February 29th. After the Emperor declared that he did not support their actions, the army was sent to destroy the rebel forces, with martial law being declared in Tokyo. The instigators of the incident were severely punished by the authorities, with nineteen executed and forty imprisoned, alongside a wider military purge of dissident elements.


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(From The Guttmacher Institute)

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25 fevereiro 2015

The Rosette Nebula in Hydrogen and Oxygen



The Rosette Nebula is not the only cosmic cloud of gas and dust to evoke the imagery of flowers -- but it is the most famous. At the edge of a large molecular cloud in Monoceros, some 5,000 light years away, the petals of this rose are actually a stellar nursery whose lovely, symmetric shape is sculpted by the winds and radiation from its central cluster of hot young stars. The stars in the energetic cluster, cataloged as NGC 2244, are only a few million years old, while the central cavity in the Rosette Nebula, cataloged as NGC 2237, is about 50 light-years in diameter. The nebula can be seen firsthand with a small telescope toward the constellation of the Unicorn (Monoceros).



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