26 dezembro 2014

Cetus Duo M77 and NGC 1055



At the top right, large spiral galaxy NGC 1055 joins spiral Messier 77 in this sharp cosmic view toward the aquatic constellation Cetus. The narrowed, dusty appearance of edge-on spiral NGC 1055 contrasts nicely with the face-on view of M77's bright nucleus and spiral arms. Both over 100,000 light-years across, the pair are dominant members of a small galaxy group about 60 million light-years away. At that estimated distance, M77 is one of the most remote objects in Charles Messier's catalog and is separated from fellow island universe NGC 1055 by at least 500,000 light-years. The field of view is about the size of the full Moon on the sky and includes colorful foreground Milky Way stars (with diffraction spikes) along with more distant background galaxies.



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jail: breelandwalker: sushinfood: vvankinq: this is fucked...









jail:



breelandwalker:



sushinfood:



vvankinq:



this is fucked up. this fucked me up. the teachers fucked up by not showing us this fuck up. fuck.




dear god


i’m 28 and never knew this



WITCHCRAFT



i dont get this



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Enjoy Boxing Day everyone!

Enjoy Boxing Day everyone!


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neurosciencestuff: (Image caption: This is a reconstruction of...





neurosciencestuff:



(Image caption: This is a reconstruction of a pair of synaptically connected neurons. Credit: Aurélie Pala/EPFL)


Optogenetics captures neuronal transmission in live mammalian brain


Neurons, the cells of the nervous system, communicate by transmitting chemical signals to each other through junctions called synapses. This “synaptic transmission” is critical for the brain and the spinal cord to quickly process the huge amount of incoming stimuli and generate outgoing signals. However, studying synaptic transmission in living animals is very difficult, and researchers have to use artificial conditions that don’t capture the real-life environment of neurons. Now, EPFL scientists have observed and measured synaptic transmission in a live animal for the first time, using a new approach that combines genetics with the physics of light. Their breakthrough work is published in Neuron .


Aurélie Pala and Carl Petersen at EPFL’s Brain Mind Institute used a novel technique, “optogenetics”, that has been making significant inroads in the field of neuroscience in the past ten years. This method uses light to precisely control the activity of specific neurons in living, even moving, animals in real time. Such precision is critical in being able to study the hundreds of different neuron types, and understand higher brain functions such as thought, behavior, language, memory - or even mental disorders.


Activating neurons with light


Optogenetics works by inserting the gene of a light-sensitive protein into live neurons, from a single cell to an entire family of them. The genetically modified neurons then produce the light-sensitive protein, which sits on their outside, the membrane. There, it acts as an electrical channel - something like a gate. When light is shone on the neuron, the channel opens up and allows electrical ions to flow into the cell; a bit like a battery being charged by a solar cell.


The addition of electrical ions changes the voltage balance of the neuron, and if the optogenetic stimulus is sufficiently strong it generates an explosive electrical signal in the neuron. And that is the impact of optogenetics: controlling neuronal activity by switching a light on and off.


Recording neuronal transmissions


Pala used optogenetics to stimulate single neurons of anesthetized mice and see if this approach could be used to record synaptic transmissions. The neurons she targeted were located in a part of the mouse’s brain called the barrel cortex, which processes sensory information from the mouse’s whiskers.


When Pala shone blue light on the neurons that contained the light-sensitive protein, the neurons activated and fired signals. At the same time, she measured electrical signals in neighboring neurons using microelectrodes that can record small voltage changes across a neuron’s membrane.


Using these approaches, the researchers looked at how the light-sensitive neurons connected to some of their neighbors: small, connector neurons called “interneurons”. In the brain, interneurons are usually inhibitory: when they receive a signal, they make the next neuron down the line less likely to continue the transmission.


The researchers recorded and analyzed synaptic transmissions from light-sensitive neurons to interneurons. In addition, they used an advanced imaging technique (two-photon microscopy) that allowed them to look deep into the brain of the live mouse and identify the type of each interneuron they were studying. The data showed that the neuronal transmissions from the light-sensitive neurons differed depending on the type of interneuron on the receiving end.


"This is a proof-of-concept study," says Aurélie Pala, who received her PhD for this work. "Nonetheless, we think that we can use optogenetics to put together a larger picture of connectivity between other types of neurons in other areas of the brain."


The scientists are now aiming to explore other neuronal connections in the mouse barrel cortex. They also want to try this technique on awake mice, to see how switching neuronal activity on and off with a light can affect higher brain functions.



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Russia did not consider beer to be an alcohol until 2011. Till then, beer was legally classified as...

Russia did not consider beer to be an alcohol until 2011. Till then, beer was legally classified as a soft drink.


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wolfsjungexminniemouse: zachlilley: 2pac’s tribute to...





wolfsjungexminniemouse:



zachlilley:



2pac’s tribute to Mike Brown, Trayvon Martin, Eric Garner & Dylan Taylor


PLEASE SPREAD THIS LIKE WILDFIRE


Then watch my NEW PROOF 2PAC IS ALIVE video it’ll connect a lot of the dots



TUPAC IS STILL ALIVE


LISTEN TO THIS SONG AND THEN WATCH THE VIDEO. IT’S LONG BUT EVEN JUST WATCHING LIKE 6 MINUTES CAN BE ENOUGH



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nosfatheratu: heyyou-yeahyou-get-overhear: henclrix: zachlill...





nosfatheratu:



heyyou-yeahyou-get-overhear:



henclrix:



zachlilley:



tumblrbelike:



zachlilley:



NEW PROOF 2PAC IS ALIVE (X)





I TOLD YOU MOTHERFUCKERS HE WOULD BE BACK AT MGM GRAND 9/13/2014




It’s 12 AM idk if I’m just tired but this seems so true, like I always felt he was still alive but sheeeit.



Holy shit this actually makes me think he is alive



What the fuck what the FUCK



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Cheetahs

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starter-packs: The “Beyoncé” starter pack





starter-packs:



The “Beyoncé” starter pack



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A Pity Today's Politicians Aren't This Witty

John Montagu: Sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox.

John Wilkes: That will depend, my lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress.



(Wilkes (1725-1795) was a famous English journalist and political radical, John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich was a political opponent. And "the pox" was the "French pox" or in today's terms, syphilis,)
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